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Open access

Peter Biro and Martin Schlaepfer

Abstract

Study objective. Videolaryngoscopes can be fitted either with channeled or non-channeled blades, which may result in a different performance and success of tracheal intubation. We investigated the characteristics of the two different blade types of the commercially available KingVisionTMvideolaryngoscope. Design. A prospective, randomized, single center investigation study in a urological operation unit of a tertiary hospital. Subjects and Methods. Forty adult patients undergoing elective urological surgery in general anaesthesia with tracheal intubation were randomly allocated into group 1 (channeled videolaryngoscopy, n = 20) and group 2 (non-channeled videolaryngoscopy, n = 20). We measured the times from laryngoscope insertion to recognize the glottis and to conclude tracheal intubation. The number of laryngoscopy/intubation attempts and the degree of visual glottis exposure on a visual analog scale from 0 (glottis not visible) to 10 (glottis fully visible) was assessed. The lowest SpO2value during airway management was recorded. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in biometric data between the 2 groups. The time from the laryngoscope insertion to glottis recognition with the non-channeled blades was 5 (4-8) s as compared to the channeled ones with 11 (7-14) s (median and range; p = 0.01). Intubation duration was shorter with the channeled blades 17 (12-27) s vs. 29 (25-51) s (median and range; p < 0.001). Number of laryngoscopy/intubation attempts, grades for glottis visibility, intubation difficulty were not different. The lowest SpO2was 98% in both groups. Conclusions. Videolaryngoscopic glottis recognition time was longer and the total time to secure the airway was shorter with the channeled blades.

Open access

Mihai Popescu, Dana Tomescu and Simona Olimpia Dima

Abstract

Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) represents one of the most common and serious complications after liver transplantation (LT). Methods. One hundred sixty-four patients who underwent LT were prospectively included in the present study. Patient demographics, intraoperative blood loss and transfusion were recorded at the time of LT. Lactate levels were recorded during surgery and daily for the first 3 postoperative days. Standard and derived rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) parameters were recorded 24 hours after LT. EAD was diagnosed according to Nanashima criteria and post anaesthesia care unit length of stay was recorded. Results. Forty-seven patients (28.6%) developed EAD. Intraoperative blood loss (p = 0.01), packed red blood cells (p = 0.04) and fresh frozen plasma (p = 0.01) transfusion represented intraoperative risk factors for EAD. Lactate levels were significantly higher in patients with EAD at all time points. Patients with EAD demonstrated an increased clot formation time and decreased maximum clot firmness in both intrinsically (p < 0.01) and extrinsically (p < 0.01) activated assay, a decreased thrombin potential index (p < 0.01), area under the curve (p < 0.01) and clot elasticity (p < 0.01) on ROTEM assay. Conclusion. Our results show that both standard and derived ROTEM parameters may indicate early signs of graft failure and can aid in the diagnosis of EAD.

Open access

Alexander M. Ioscovich, Oksana V. Riazanova and Yurii S. Alexandrovich

Abstract

Postpartum depression (PPD) is the main psychological status disorder and women suffering from postpartum depression often need long-term psychological and socio-economic rehabilitation. The study is dedicated to the evaluation of the role of labor pain management using epidural analgesia in natural delivery on stress level in labor and frequency of postnatal depression. Materials and methods: 210 women were investigated and divided into two groups. In the first group for labor pain management in natural delivery, patient-controlled epidural analgesia was used (bolus - 10.0 - 0.08% ropivacaine hydrochloride, lockout - 30 min, limit - 120 ml/6 h) with a background of continuousflow infusion of local anesthetic 0.08% ropivacaine hydrocluoride solution. Patients in the second group had no pain relief in delivery. The stress level was evaluated using blood plasma cortisol level in the early stages of labor, 6 hours and 3 days after delivery. The assessment of depression development was carried out step-by-step: Before the delivery, 6 hours after, 3 days and 6 weeks after the delivery. Results: The baby blues frequency 6 hours after the delivery in the group where the pain relief was conducted was 29.91%, with cortisol level below and equal to 2310.91 nmol/l. In the group with no pain relief 6 hours after delivery, baby blues was found in 15.53% of puerperas (p < 0.05) and the cortisol level was 2673.82 nmol/l (p < 0.05). Six weeks after the birth, postpartum depression was diagnosed in 4.67% of women who received epidural analgesia during delivery, in comparison to 6.79% with no pain relief during delivery. However, the difference was not statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The use of epidural analgesia leads to a significant reduction of pain syndrome and stress response during natural delivery, increases the risk of baby blues in the early postnatal period, but slightly influences the frequency of postpartum depression.

Open access

Arun Kalava and Abby M. Pribish

Abstract

Background and Aims. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia seen clinically. Due to the lack of literature and guidelines on maternal AF as a postoperative complication following cesarean delivery (CD), we undertook a study to characterize parturients who developed AF following CD and to evaluate arrhythmia management and outcomes in this patient population. Methods. After receiving ethics committee approval, a retrospective chart review was performed to determine the incidence, possible risk factors, treatment, and outcome of women who developed AF following CD performed between 2003 and 2012 at New York Methodist Hospital in Brooklyn, New York. Results. A total of 17,039 CDs were performed at New York Methodist Hospital from 2003 to 2012. Of these, seven parturients developed AF after CD. The incidence of AF following CD in this patient population was 1:2,434 (0.04%). The age range was 26-41 years, with a median of 33 years. All 7 parturients were at term or postterm. Two deliveries were elective and five were emergent. Two of the seven parturients had prior history of paroxysmal AF. One patient was identified as having mitral regurgitation. All seven had low levels of serum magnesium postoperatively. Out of the seven, two parturients had spontaneous conversion to normal sinus rhythm, one required electrical cardioversion and four required pharmacologic cardioversion. Conclusions. Postoperative AF (POAF) exists as a rare complication in women who undergo CD with an incidence of 0.04% in our patient population. All parturients in our study were noted to have hypomagnesemia in the postoperative period. Occurrence of AF increased length of hospital stay and utilization of hospital resources.

Open access

Chryssoula Staikou, Mattheos Stamelos and Eftyhios Stavroulakis

Abstract

Patients with pre-excitation abnormalities are at a high risk for life-threatening perioperative arrhythmias. In Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the anaesthetics used for invasive diagnostic testing/ablation, should not affect cardiac electrophysiology; propofol, sevoflurane, fentanyl, sufentanil , alfentanil are suitable. In non-ablative surgery, propofol, sevoflurane, isoflurane, fentanyl, alfentanil, sufentanil have been used safely. Among neuromuscular blockers, cis-atracurium, rocuronium and vecuronium are good choices. Ketamine, pancuronium and pethidine should be avoided because of their sympathomimetic actions. Anticholinergic/ anticholinesterase combinations for neuromuscular block reversal should preferably be omitted, while sugammadex seems more attractive. In regional anaesthesia, addition of epinephrine and high sympathetic blocks should be avoided. Hypotension should be treated with pure alpha-adrenergic agonists. Other preexcitation abnormalities associated with different accessory pathways are the Mahaim Fiber and Lown- Ganong-Levine syndrome. Sympathetic activation should be avoided. Total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol probably represents the safest option. A careful anaesthetic plan and close cooperation with cardiologists are mandatory for successful management.

Open access

Septimiu-Daniel Popescu, Mihaela Dănilă and Valentin Nădășan

Open access

Teodora Sorana Truta, Cristian Marius Boeriu, Marc Lazarovici, Irina Ban, Marius Petrişor and Sanda-Maria Copotoiu

Abstract

Introduction: Errors are frequent in health care and Emergency Departments are one of the riskiest areas due to frequent changes of team composition, complexity and variety of the cases and difficulties encountered in managing multiple patients. As the majority of clinical errors are the results of human factors and not technical in nature or due to the lack of knowledge, a training focused on these factors appears to be necessary. Crisis resource management (CRM), a tool that was developed initially by the aviation industry and then adopted by different medical specialties as anesthesia and emergency medicine, has been associated with decreased error rates.

The aim of the study: To assess whether a single day CRM training, combining didactic and simulation sessions, improves the clinical performance of an interprofessional emergency medical team.

Material and Methods: Seventy health professionals with different qualifications, working in an emergency department, were enrolled in the study. Twenty individual interprofessional teams were created. Each team was assessed before and after the training, through two in situ simulated exercises. The exercises were videotaped and were evaluated by two assessors who were blinded as to whether it was the initial or the final exercise. Objective measurement of clinical team performance was performed using a checklist that was designed for each scenario and included essential assessment items for the diagnosis and treatment of a critical patient, with the focus on key actions and decisions. The intervention consisted of a one-day training, combining didactic and simulation sessions, followed by instructor facilitated debriefing. All participants went through this training after the initial assessment exercises.

Results: An improvement was seen in most of the measured clinical parameters.

Conclusion: Our study supports the use of combined CRM training for improving the clinical performance of an interprofessional emergency team. Empirically this may improve the patient outcome.

Open access

Maria Oana Mărginean, Lorena Elena Meliț, Simona Mocanu and Vlăduț Săsăran

Abstract

Introduction: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is an uncommon but possible life-threatening entity in children, frequently caused by erosive gastritis. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are one of the most common class of drugs which can cause gastrointestinal complications, including hemorrhagic gastritis.

Case report: The case of a 6-year-old male, admitted for hematemesis, abdominal pain and loss of appetite. It was ascertained at the time of admission, that ibuprofen had been prescribed as the patient had a fever. This was inappropriately administered as the mother did not respect the intervals between the doses.

Initial laboratory tests revealed neutrophilia, leukopenia, high levels of lactate dehydrogenase and urea. An upper digestive endoscopy revealed an increased friability of the mucosa, digested blood in the gastric corpus and fornix. No active bleeding site was detected. The histopathological examination described a reactive modification of the corporeal gastric mucosa. Intravenous treatment with proton pump inhibitors and fluid replacement were initiated, with favorable results.

Conclusion: Ibuprofen can lead to upper digestive hemorrhage independently of the administered dose. Parents should avoid administering Ibuprofen for fever suppression without consulting their pediatrician.