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Open access

Gaurav Jaiswal, Praveen Kumar Tripathi, Vardan Kulshreshtha and Tarun Kumar Gupta

Abstract

This is a prospective study, carried out at the Department of Neurosurgery at M.B.G Hospital, R.N.T Medical College, Udaipur, Rajasthan (India). Many patients with history of trauma with head injury, whose identity cannot be ascertained, are admitted in our hospital. The management of these unattended patients from pre-hospital till discharge, rehabilitation or death is full of difficulties especially when surgical intervention has to be done. From March 16, 2015, until March 30, 2016, 118 consecutive patients unattended patients admitted in our department with history of head injury were enrolled in the study. Out of 118 patients, 107 (91%) were male, most were in the age group of 30-39 years. In majority of patients, 115 (97%) principal cause of head injury was road traffic accident. Majority of the patients 49 (41%) had Glasgow coma scale >13 on admission. Twenty three patients 23 (20%) died in hospital, 71 (60%) patients had good recovery. During the course of treatment identity of 115 patients was established and 92 (78%) patients, who survived were discharged to home. Three (3%) patients were shifted to destitute home. All discharged patients were followed at 1 month and 6 month interval. 78 (82%) & 76 (80%) patients showed good recovery (GOS) at 1 month & 6 month respectively. One patient expired at home within one month of discharge and 6 patients lost to follow up at 6 months.

Open access

B. Ushasree Reddy, Ranabir Pal, Amrita Ghosh, Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Vishnu Vardhan Reddy and Amit Agrawal

Abstract

Tinnitus is a frequent clinical feature encountered during follow up of Traumatic brain injury (TBI) that can be incapacitating in the long run. Literature suggests that post-TBI carries a higher psychological burden than tinnitus patients presenting with other non-traumatic or unknown etiologic. Posttraumatic tinnitus is of longer duration, frequently associated with hyperacousis and occurs in younger age group. If the symptoms are severe post-traumatic tinnitus can affect quality of life of the patients. The management of these patients needs detail evaluation and comprehensive rehabilitation plan.

Open access

Prashant S. Gade, Vernon Velho, Harish Naik and Laxmikant Bhople

Abstract

Hemangioblatomas are low grade, highly vascular tumors usually associated with VHL syndrome and most commonly occurs in the cerebellum. They very rarely occur in the spinal nerve roots and an origin in the filum terminale is exceptionl. A 47 year old man presented with low back pain, paresthesias and stiffness of the both lower limbs. He also had urinary retention and constipation. MRI showed an enhancing mass at the L5 vertebral level with multiple dilated and tortuous vessels at both poles of the tumor. Digital subtraction angiogram showed the tumor to be supplied by the anterior spinal artery and dural branches of lumbar arteries. At surgery, a well-defined tumor with orange red hue was found to be arising from the filum terminale. The tumor was excised en bloc. Histopathological examination showed hemangioblastoma which was confirmed with immunohistochemistry. Clinical symptoms improved significantly after surgery. A sporadic hemangioblastoma arising from the filum terminale should be considered as a rare cause of back pain and sciatica. Total excision of the tumor usually cures the patient.

Open access

Gaurav Jaiswal, Vivek Kankane, Ashok Kumar, Pavan Kumar and Tarun Kumar Gupta

Abstract

Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the very common surgically treatable neurosurgical entities. Still there is lack of uniformity in the management of CSDH amongst surgeons in terms of various treatment strategies and protocols. Burrhole drainage is the treatment modality of choice for an uncomplicated CSDH. Some recent trials support the use of drain to lessen the rate of recurrence. Twist drill craniostomy and craniotomy do also play a role in the management of CSDH. The current study is a retrospective analysis of 270 surgically treated patients with chronic subdural hematoma at a tertiary care center over a span of five years. The present study highlighted on rate of recurrence, re-surgery, mortality and morbidity.

Open access

Tatiana Iov, Sofia David, Simona Damian, A. Knieling, Mădălina Maria Diac, D. Tabian and Diana Bulgaru-Iliescu

Abstract

Recognition of abuse and the treatment of child victims are recent concepts in the history of mankind. Increasing the awareness of the need to treat and prevent such abuse is a characteristic of modern society. The beaten child syndrome was described by Ambroise Tardieu in 1860, and Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) was clearly illustrated in medical literature a century later by Caffey in 1972. The definition of SBS is based on the association of major intracranial lesions with minimal external lesions and the diagnosis is still difficult to establish. The authors describe a reduced number of 7 cases of pediatric patients addressed for forensic expertise and where suspicion of SBS has arisen. The lesion mechanisms involved in the production of this syndrome are still controversial and are sources of frequent debates in legal medicine. These uncertainties can make legal punishment inoperable. The therapeutic management of these children in neurosurgery is not subject to international consensus, and discrepancies between different clinics impede a comparative cohort assessment. However, SBS is a major public health problem due to severe neurological injuries caused to child victims during brain development.

Open access

Ghassen Gader, Mouna Rkhami, Maher Ben Salem, Mohamed Badri, Kamel Bahri and Ihsèn Zammel

Abstract

Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH), which commonly affects the elderly, is one of the most frequent, but also benign neurosurgical pathologies. Burr hole drainage is the standard surgical modality for evacuation of a CSDH. This technique is known to be safe, with low morbidity and mortality rates. However, postoperative complications have occasionally been reported. We report the case of a 70-year-old man who presented a fatal brain stem hemorrhage after burr-hole drainage for unilateral chronic subdural hematoma. Asymmetrical and rapid decompression were thought to be leading to vascular disruption or sudden increase in cerebral blood flow, was probably responsible for the secondary brain stem bleeding. Therefore, a slow rate of evacuation of chronic subdural hematomas, as well as rigorous postoperative reanimation, are recommended in order to prevent serious complications.

Open access

G. Venkateswara Prasanna, Sathish Kumar Vandanapu and Hima Bindu

Abstract

Bilateral extradural haematomas [EDH] are rare and it is an uncommon consequense of cranio cerebral trauma. The mortality is higher than unilateral extradural haematoma and management of extradural haematomas requires careful planning, judicial surgical exposure and most important is timing of evacuation of extradural haematomas. Emergency evacuation of bilateral extradural haematomas were performed in this case with uneventful postoperative period. The pathophysiology and surgical nuances of this rare entity been discussed.

Open access

Ashraf ElBadry and Azza Abdelazeez

Abstract

Background: meningioma in parasagittal location represent between 20%-30% of meningioma in the cranial cavity. The close relation of it with Superior Sagittal Sinus make its surgical resection is a great challenge to the surgeon to get a good result. Patients & method: we collected 23 cases of Parasagittal Meningioma cases medical records (including pre-& postoperative clinical pictures, images plus operative details and complications post operatively) who admitted to neurosurgery dept., Mansoura University Hospital and underwent surgical resection in the period that began in 2010 and ended in 2016. We followed up the cases at least for 6 months. Results: the patient’s age varied between 64-35 years. 16 female & 7 males. The presenting symptoms was headache (11 patients), fits (6 patients), motor weakness (5 cases), abnormal gait (1 patient) and dizziness (1 case). 15 cases had gross total tumor excision while 8 cases showed partial tumor removal. Recurrence rat was in 4 cases (17.4%) plus two mortality cases. Conclusion: through our series we could detect cardinal factors in prognosis of these cases which included: tumor size, histology, preoperative identification of the venous collateral and preservation of it in the surgical maneuver. The meticulous microscopic surgical technique can augment this goal.

Open access

Tatiana Iov, Diana Bulgaru-Iliescu, Simona Damian, A. Knieling, Mădălina Maria Diac, D. Tabian and Sofia David

Abstract

Introduction: The upper C1-C2 column is the subject of several erroneous diagnostics. The most common mechanisms of injuries include fall from high-impact skulls, car accidents, etc. Vertebra C1 can also be injured by mild trauma. The Japanese show that atlas fractures occur in about 2-13% of the cervical spine fractures and about 1.3% of the total spinal cord injuries. It is underlined that CT examination is the most useful diagnostic method. The Czechs show that the atlas lesions appear in 1-2% of the cervical spine lesions. Americans reported fracture of the atlas in 7% of the cervical spine fractures. Even if CT has shown its value, lateral radiography is recommended in C1-C2 fractures. When victims are children or people injured in high-speed car crashes, the reported mechanisms were the fall from a high level and the impact on the tip of the flexed skull. The Italians mention that the C1-C2 area is the most exposed diagnostic area with errors. Material and methods: given the difficulty of establishing a diagnosis of C1 type fractures, we present in this paper such a case. We highlight the value of a CT scan. The victim is a 26-year-old woman with a trauma from the wall. The main issue in this case is that the diagnosis made by the radiologist seems to be wrong, the electronic and imprinted copies are of inferior quality. A second opinion revealed a very fine fracture that seemed to come from an older date than the date when the victim claimed she was assaulted. The better the lesions, the more misleading the interpretations. Any imaginary imaging lesion, especially if it is obvious in electronic reconstructions, must be brought to the attention of the physician if they are taken into account by "image". The axial CT sections may omit some lesions under certain conditions, for example at the upper and lower poles of a spherical, ovoid or cubic structure, such as the atlas lateral mass. Conclusions: the diagnostic solution in this case is the reconstruction of the axial sections in several planes. The crack can be highlighted, in the case of a reconstructed image, only after stacking the axial images. The mechanism could be through sudden compression, during a sudden head movement, uninitiated and uncontrolled by the neck muscles, when a movement occurs over the degree of elasticity of the occiput-atlas joint, the occipital condyles compressing abruptly, unilaterally one of the atlas masses. In such clinical cases, we experience pain, muscle contraction and torticollis, on a normal neurological background.

Open access

Guru Dutta Satyarthee, Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar and Amit Agrawal

Abstract

Rigid collars are routinely used to immobilise the cervical spine during early phase of management of trauma cases until cervical clearance is obtained or else diagnosed as case of cervical spine injury following detailed clinical as well as neurological evaluation. Spinal injuries commonly coexist in patients sustaining severe head injury. Till date, there is no clear cut consensus about effect of application of a rigid collar in cases suffering with traumatic brain injury. However, concern are regularly raised over collar application, such practice may have adverse effect on cerebrovascular regulation and ultimately affecting intracranial pressure and outcome. Authors made detailed Pubmed, EMBASE, AMED, and Thomson Reuters, Medline line search and could find out six articles. According to existing literature, the cervical collar has the potential to influence intracranial pressure in patients suffering with head injury. There are several reports in the literature showing that cervical immobilization may alter intracranial pressure and the changes in ICP closely depend on the types of cervical collars used. Authors discuss the current status based on review of updated literature on possible effect on the intracranial pressure produced by application of rigid cervical collar and briefly literature is reviewed.