Depression represents a mood disorder and is considered to be one of the most common mental disorders in general. World Health Organization estimates that depression will be the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years, until 2030. Depression is a complex heterogeneous disorder where immune system and its regulation play an important role. Innate and adaptive immunity mecha nisms are included, along with processes of immune activation and suppression. The expression of humoral factors of innate immunity, especially pro-inflammatory cytokines, is increased, whereas the intensity of cellular immune mechanisms, primarily T cells and NK cells, are impaired. The influence of pro-inflammatory cytokines on depression is reflected in their effect on certain enzymes and ensuing reduction of neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine. They also affect the neuroendocrine function in central nervous system, resulting in increase of cortisol levels and inactivation of glucocorticoid receptors in the periphery, which leads to neurodegeneration and decrease in neurotransmitter production. Certain cytokines affect neuroplasticity through the decreasing of concentration of neurotrophic brain factor and induction of brain cell apoptosis. The results are often contradictory talking about mechanisms of adaptive immunity. On one hand, an increased activity of Tlymphocytes is observed, while on the other, there are evidence of spontaneous apoptosis and impaired function of these cells in depression. In addition, neuroprotective role of autoreactive and regulatory T cells in prevention of depression has also been demonstrated. The aim of this paper is to analyze the current knowledge on the role of immune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of depression.