The discovery of an adaptive immune system especially in archae and bacteria, CRISPR/Cas has revolutionized the field of agriculture and served as a potential gene editing tool, producing great excitement to the molecular scientists for the improved genetic manipulations. CRISPR/Cas9 is a RNA guided endonuclease which is popular among its predecessors ZFN and TALEN’s. The utilities of CRISPR from its predecessors is the use of short RNA fragments to locate target and breaking the double strands which avoids the need of protein engineering, thus allowing time efficiency measure for gene editing. It is a simple, flexible and highly efficient programmable DNA cleavage system that can be modified for widespread applications like knocking out the genes, controlling transcription, modifying epigenomes, controlling genome-wide screens, modifying genes for disease and stress tolerance and imaging chromosomes. However, gene cargo delivery system, off target cutting and issues on the safety of living organisms imposes major challenge to this system. Several attempts have been done to rectify these challenges; using sgRNA design software, cas9 nickases and other mutants. Thus, further addressing these challenges may open the avenue for CRISPR/cas9 for addressing the agriculture related problems.
A field experiment was carried out in sub-tropical climate of Bhimdattanagar, Kanchanpur to assess the effect of site specific nutrient management approach in productivity of spring rice. The experiment was carried in single factor randomized completely block design with four replication, in four different farmer’s field, each farmers’ field as single replication. The seedlings were grown in the mat nursery bed and transplanted in the experimental plots with different nutrient management practices. Nutrient management practices were Site Specific Nutrient Management with Nutrient Expert dose (SSNMNE)(109:28:38 kg NPK/ha), Government recommendation dose (100:30:30kg NPK/ha +6 ton FYM), Farmer’s field practice (FFP)(different among farmers) with three omission plots viz. omission of Nitrogen (0:28:38 kg NPK/ha), Omission of Phosphorus (109:0:38 kg NPK/ha) and Omission of Potassium (109:28:0 kg NPK/ha). SSNM-NE dose was obtained by household survey in the respective area and using nutrient expert model. The growth parameters, yield, yield attributing traits and total cost of production were recorded. Data were analyzed using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) in Genstat. Result indicates that the highest grain yield (5.81 t/ha) was obtained from SSNM-NE which was statistically at par with government recommendation (5.54 t/ha). Similarly, thousand grains weight, straw yield in the experiment 23.20g, 6.90t/ha were significantly higher in SSNM-NE respectively. Straw yield, grain yield and thousand grain weight of SSNM-NE were found to be statistically at par with government recommendation. The economic analysis revealed that higher B: C ratio (1.91), net return and gross return were higher in SSNM-NE.
Wheat is one of the important cereal crops in Nepal as well as globally. But due to varied climatic and sowing conditions low production has been reported throughout the world including Nepal. Sowing rates are highly correlated to yield and its yield attributing characters. Yield loss has been reported 50-62% under a late sown condition which shows a heavy threat to food security problems. Vijaya is the most recommended varieties under late sown conditions due to its high yield and less threat to late sown conditions. Thus identification and release of varieties suitable under late sown conditions are of the utmost importance. Researches should be accelerated under different agro-ecological zones to study the constraints associated with late sown wheat in Nepal.
Carbon emission is the biggest problem all over the world. The actualizing of low carbon emission in the bread kitchen and dessert shop segment permits the difference in its mechanical procedure through the improvement of an eco-proficient framework. This study was to line up bread and cake with fully completely different wheat quality, baking time, and temperature through low carbon emission. The prepared samples were chemically analyzed for wet content, ash content, compound content, and organoleptic. Among the four processed cake products based on each parameter tested organoleptically, cupcake products were the most preferable one. Bread products made with substitution of 50% have been received by consumer panelists. The results of this study were also in line with the research conducted by which resulted in a substitution of spinach flour substitution of up to 60% still acceptable by panelists. Sponge cake from flour can still be received by panelists with 50% substitution. 12% of moisture will help 5 days’ self-life without chemical preservatives. The oven is the largest of the three consumers and typically accounts for between 35% and 45% of the total site carbon emissions. The dark cake pan, which holds in more heat than light-colored baking pans and bakes our cake batter faster. Considering that the most significant dark non-stick pan was suggested for baking low carbon emission, it will be reducing the baking temperature by 25° F. Good practice opportunities can be delivered for various plant/equipment utility serving could deliver on average a 10% saving in total CO2 emissions for the sector. This would speak to a CO2 decrease of 57 000 ton CO2 / year over the world.
The research was conducted from January 2019 to June 2019 to study the fish production and marketing system in fish zone, Rupandehi. Altogether 95 respondents including 27 small farmers, 35 medium farmers and 33 large farmers were selected for household survey using simple random sampling for the study. Statistical tools, Ms- excel and SPSS of version 23 were used for data analysis. From the study, it was evident that, six species of carps of fingerlings size were stocked with high average number of common carps (3885.5/ha.) followed by silver carp (3880.5/ha). The average production of fish species was 6.06ton/ha which is slightly higher than the national average. The observed data revealed that, marketing of major quantity of fish was from on farm sale i.e. 55.78% followed by local market sale (18.94%), live fish sale in retailers (5.26%). Similarly, percentage of farmers selling fish to wholesaler, consumers, retailers and neighbours were 63.3%, 30.5%, 26.5% and 26.3% respectively. Cost and returns analysis showed average B/C ratio of 2.13. Problem ranking using 5 point scale value showed high cost of feed as the most serious problem with index value of 0.94 in the study area.
This review tends to analyze the importance of halal animal feed from the Islamic standpoint and describes the drawbacks of non-halal. Mischievousness to animal handling during production, transport, and slaughter in states where Islam is the main doctrine has created doubts about the quality of products. Islam is a religious conviction that illustrates empathy to animals and well-being of humankind food as mentioned in the holy book Qur’an and sayings of the Prophet Mohammed (PBUH). In a variety of animal-based halal food products, a Muslim should be conscious of not only about the rearing organization of the animals but also the slaughtering procedure. Animal feed is the preliminary Critical Control Point to establish the halal authenticity of animal-based food products. Regardless of the recognized agenda on animal feed in Middle East Asia, impurity in animal feed ingredients is still occurring and repetitively reported by the media. Feed inflicts direct effect on the animal originated feedstuffs like meat, milk, and eggs and it has been acknowledged as the foremost cause of diseases in both humans as well as animals. Consequently, any action that is associated with the production of livestock must be intimately explored to spot any vulnerability with liable Islamic laws of food and hit upon those traditions to avoid them. The intent of this review is to appraise the halal nutritional system of animals and see whether it has any optimistic or depressing effects on the health of the customers. Our advancement will be comprehensive as we have focused on the socio-religious aspects of human health. The verdict of this review could be made as an orientation by the policymakers of emerging officially authorized business bodies for producing, importing and auction of halal animal feed according to Islamic set of guidelines.
Boesenbergia rotunda or Temu kunci is a herb belonging to the Zingiberaceae family and wildly cultivated in Malaysia by rhizome. Temu kunci rhizome is commonly used in traditional medicines to cure stomach aches, promote appetite and gout. Due to its potential to be developed as one of Malaysia’s herbal products, information on their agronomic requirements is needed. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the different combination of the growing medium on B. rotunda growth and yield. Topsoil, peat moss, sand and chicken manure with four different ratios have been used as a planting medium. The potted plant was arranged in a randomised, complete block design with five replicates. The growth parameter was measured during harvesting time. The results showed that there was no significant difference in plant height, number of leaves, tiller number, fresh and dry shoot weight and fresh and dry root and rhizome weight in all treatments. It can be argued that this is because B. rotunda can be grown in different kinds of planting medium. Based on this study, it was suggested that topsoil be used for Temu Kunci planting, since it is easily obtained and requires less money.
The esophageal diverticula are divided into pharyngoesophageal, parabronchial and epiphrenic. They could also be divided into congenital and acquired, true and false, pulsion and traction. Pulsion diverticula are usually formed in motor disorders of the esophagus, above the place of hypertension and uncoordinated peristalsis. They are pseudo-diverticula caused by increased intramural pressure, leading to herniation of the mucosa and submucosa through the focal areas of the esophageal wall. We present a 65-year-old woman who underwent left-sided transthoracic diverticulectomy, modified Heller esophagocardiomyotomy, and modified Belsey-Mark IV fundoplication due to a huge epiphrenic esophageal diverticulum.
The aim of the work was to study the agglutination and hemolysis of erythrocytes under diff erent conditions in vitro in a patient with unknown cause of anemia and concomitant secondary instability of endoprosthesis.
Material and methods. One percent (1%) suspension of erythrocytes of a woman, 61 years old, A (II) Rh- (negative) presented with anemia was incubated with her serum and plasma at pH 7.3, pH 5.8 and 9.0, as well as with IgM α and β antibodies. Unithiol was used to destroy IgM antibodies. The samples were incubated for 12 hours at 37° C, and the presence of the agglutination and hemolysis was evaluated.
Results. The incubation of the plasma with unwashed erythrocytes of the patient led to the agglutination of the erythrocytes and the usage of the complement led to the hemolysis. After inactivation of IgM in the plasma the agglutination was absent and the hemolysis was present under usual conditions and at pH 5.8, whereas at pH 8.0 the hemolysis was attenuated, however a slight degree agglutination appeared. The usage of the complement led to the agglutination and the hemolysis, absent at pH 8.0. The plasma incubated with washed red blood cells and the complement led to the hemolysis. The incubation of the serum with washed erythrocytes led to the hemolysis at pH 5.8, attenuated after the usage of the complement. The contact of terbinophine with plasma and unwashed red blood cells led to the absence of both the hemolysis and the agglutination. Candida lusitaniae growth was detected in the plasma.
Conclusions. The agglutination of unwashed erythrocytes by own plasma, attenuated in the alkaline medium and enhanced in the acid medium, as well as the absence of the agglutination after the usage of terbinophine and the hemolysis in the presence of the complement might be the signs of mycogenic and autoimmune origin of anemia with the activation of autoimmune complement – binding antibodies.
The purpose of the study is to create computer program for the achievement of precise digital data processing of records performed with the “Facebow Mini-Maxi” and the facilitation of information transfer to the articulator.
Material and method: A conceptual project was developed in order to create a new software product and requirements were defined towards its capacities, which are to provide guidance for its creation. With the assistance of computer programmer, the project was implemented.
Results: The computer program “Facebow Mini-Maxi Analyzer” for digital data processing of registrants performed with the auricular type facebow was created. The program provides automatic recognition, reading, calibration and measurement of data obtained by “Facebow Mini-Maxi”. The main module gives us opportunities for measuring the values of: the sagittal condylar pathway; the arrow point angle and the length of the hinge axis. After finalizing the calculations, the software automatically generates a scheme with visualization of the parameters that significantly supports the dental technician when it comes to defining the accurate position of the models in dental articulator with individual parameters.
Conclusion: The computer program provides accurate analysis of facebow records and assists in determining individual patient movement parameters of the lower jaw. The obtained results from the analysis improve the precision of casts mounting in articulator. The program cuts down the risk of subjective error when analysing the data via manual measurement of the recorded parameters on paper carrier.