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Anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities of foliar extract from a tropical species: Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) grown in Algeria

Abstract

Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a fruit tree largely used in folk medicine in tropical and subtropical areas. This exotic species was introduced in a botanical garden in the northeast of Algeria in the 1950’s. The aim of this study is to estimate, for the first time, the antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of P. guajava growing in Algeria. Six antioxidant assays were tested, results showed very important efficiency in free radical scavenging, reducing power and β-carotene bleaching of tested extracts. Values of IC50 or A0.5 of some samples were lower than those of standards. With regard to anticholinesterase activity, the inhibitory of both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was investigated. The extracts exhibited interesting capacity to inhibit these enzymes with low values of IC50 and even less than that of galanthamine. These activities were correlated with total phenolic content which was more important compared to the one found in extracts from trees growing in tropical and subtropical region. This could be due to resistance and adaptation of P. guajava grown in Algeria. The data obtained suggest the use of bioactive compounds from P. guajava leaves as antioxidant and drugs for symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer disease.

Open access
Biochemical aspects of KB-28 compound on physically loaded study subjects

Abstract

In previous studies of actoprotective activity of 5-R-thio-tetrazolo[1,5]quinazoline derivatives in normal and complicated experimental conditions, sodium 2-(tetrazolo [1,5-c]quinazoline-5-ylthio)acetate (KB-28) was found to be the leader of the experiment. The objective of the current study was to characterize the effects of KB-28 compounds on carbohydrate and lipid exchange indices under the conditions of physical load as a possible mechanism of actoprotective effect. In the course of the experiment, the indices of carbohydrate and lipid exchange in the muscle, blood and liver of animal models were determined following a 15-day physical load course. In doing so, glucose, glycogen and total lipid concentrations were assessed. The KB-28 compound was administered daily at levels determined during the course of regular physical load normalized metabolic processes in rats. The results were then compared to a control which received intraperitoneally the equivolume 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The phenomenon of actoprotection consisted in enhancing concentrations of glycogen in skeletal muscles and liver. Compared to the control figures, this increase was 28.8% and 25.0%, accordingly. Moreover, the course of KB-28 caused a statistically significant reduction (by 32.1%) of the total serum lipid concentration in the animals under physical load. The effect may be a sign of the ability of this substance to utilize active lipolysis for improvement of the skeletal muscle performance. Having analyzed the results obtained, we can draw a conclusion that influencing the biochemical processes in the study models is one of the mechanisms of the KB-28 actoprotective effect.

Open access
Cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC (hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy) in combined treatment of ovarian cancer: time for the beginning of personalized therapy?

Abstract

Background and objectives. During the two past decades, a new therapeutic approach to ovarian cancer (OC) has been developed. This combines cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). However, almost no data exist regarding the utility of biomarkers of morphological heterogeneity as prognostic factors in such patients.

Methods. A retrospective study of the effectiveness of CRS and HIPEC was carried out in 59 patients with ovarian cancer. Biomarkers of morphological heterogeneity of OC were studied as prognostic factors: OC pathogenic types (based on the identification of р53 mutated gene protein expression) and homologous recombination deficit (basing on the identification of BRCA 1 gene expression status).

Results. The survival of patients reliably differed with the division into two pathogenetic OC types established by immunohistochemistry: the median disease-free survival of type I OC patients was 14±1.7 months, type ІІ – 8±1.6 months (р = 0.007); the median overall survival of type I OC patients was 23.5±6.7 months, type ІІ – 12±1.9 months (р = 0.017). The median overall survival of patients with the somatic mutation of BRCA 1 gene and complete cytoreduction was 22±4.8 months, and without the somatic mutation of BRCA 1 gene – 12±3.3 months (р = 0.047).

Conclusions. These data demonstrate that identification of the pathogenetic type of OC and BRCA 1 status may be useful for the personalized therapy of ovarian cancer patients treated with CRS/HIPEC.

Open access
The effects of pomegranate peel extract on recurrent aphthous stomatitis

Abstract

As high as 20% of the population is thought to have recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), hence, finding new therapeutic agents may be needed. Pomegranate (Punica granatum), has been extensively used in the folk medicine of many cultures, as it possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties. In this study, it is hypothesized that a topical form of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) may shorten the duration, accelerate the healing and reduce the pain of RAS patients. The presented randomized, double-blind study was conducted on 56 patients. Herein, 28 patients were advised to apply PPE gel, and the other 28 patients were given placebo gel, twice daily for one week. Efficacy evaluations were made at days 0 (before using the gel), 3, 5 and 7. The mean values of ulcer size, pain and healing duration of ulcers were compared in both groups. PPE gel was significantly effective in reducing the pain (p<0.001), ulcer size (p<0.001), and healing duration of ulcers (p<0.001) over a period of one week. PPE in the form of oral gel can be used in the management of aphthous ulcers.

Open access
Fenugreek seeds estrogenic activity in ovariectomized female rats

Abstract

The estrogenic activities of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), widely used in traditional pharmacopoeia, are reflected in the uterus of ovariectomized female rats, with a slight increase in dry and wet weight, a thickening of the stroma and the uterine epithelium and the development of the endometrial glands. In the vagina, the estrogenic action is shown through an increase in the epidermal cell number and a tendency to keratinization, leading to vaginal opening.

Furthermore, this estrogenic potential of fenugreek seeds is confirmed by the over-expression of progesterone receptors in the uterine tissues supporting possible interactions between phytoestrogens and estrogen receptors.

Therefore, Fenugreek seeds may be capable of promoting the development of reproductive tissues of immature ovariectomized rats, and its estrogenic activity may take its action by holding phystoestrogens that interact with estrogen binding sites and activate the same estradiol-mediated cell signaling pathways.

Thus, our results give added scientific support to the popular use of Fenugreek seeds as an alternative for several health problems such as fertility and menopause related disorders.

Open access
Gingival health in children in the different phases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Abstract

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common type of leukemia in children, has diverse oral cavity complications. While periodontal alterations in such patients are widely known, there were no studies evaluating gingival health from the time of diagnosis to the remission phase. In our study, we, therefore, analysed the frequency of periodontal diseases and the gingival indices in the different phases of ALL in children. Children aged 7-15 years were involved into the cross-sectional study. Therein, 160 children with ALL were divided into three groups: L1 – 50 children examined before the initiation phase, L2 – 50 children examined after 1 month of the chemotherapy, L3 – 60 children examined in permanent hematologic remission. The control (HC) included 150 healthy children. The L1, L2 and L3 groups had significantly worse gingival indices and frequency of gingivitis than the HC group (p < 0.0001). Frequency of gingivitis increased from before the initiation to the remission phase, but significantly only in 7-11 year-old children (p = 0.0004). Gingival indices increased after 1 month of chemotherapy (p < 0.0001), but decreased in the permanent remission phase (p < 0.0001).

Our study stresses the need for children with ALL to not only require prevention courses before the initiation and during the chemotherapy phases, but also in the permanent remission phase to minimize the long-term impact of leukemia treatment on gingival health.

Open access
Hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and anti-lipid peroxidation properties of a methanol extract of Paullinia pinnata root-bark, in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

Abstract

This study evaluated the hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and anti-lipid peroxidation properties of a methanol extract of Paullinia pinnata root-bark, in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats. The extract of P. pinnata root-bark was prepared using a cold maceration method with 80% methanol and concentrated at 40°C in hot air oven. The extract was administered once daily per os at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 21 consecutive days. Distilled water (5 mL/kg) and glibenclamide (2 mg/kg) were used as the vehicle and reference standard, respectively. The serum lipid profile, markers of liver and kidney functions, antioxidant status (malondialdehyde level, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities), histopathological changes in liver and kidney were examined 24h after the last treatment on day 21. The extract reduced serum lipid profile, markers of liver and kidney functions of treated rats relative to vehicle-treated rats. The superoxide dismutase and catalase activities of the extract treated rats were also elevated relative to the vehicle-treated rats. The extract reversed liver and kidney injuries induced by alloxan in the treated rats. This study provides some basic information which suggest that P. pinnata could be effective in managing diabetic complications.

Open access
Microbiological evaluation of 10 commercial probiotic products available in Poland

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyze the quality of 10 commonly available commercial probiotic products used in Poland. These items were tested for the total viable bacterial count, and for identifying the isolated strains. This was performed using the Polymerase Chain Reaction method. The results showed that five of the tested products had not the applicable number of viable bacteria declared by manufacturer. Moreover, not all declared probiotic strains were found in three of the tested products during analyses. It is clear that a regular control of probiotic products needs be introduced that can guarantee its beneficial properties.

Open access
Obtaining the tbf gene which encodes immunodominant epitopes of pathogenic cholera strains

Abstract

We experimentally carried out the synthesis of the tbf gene that encodes highly-immunogenic epitopes of pathogenic cholera strains, through the cloning of the tbf gene in pGEM-T Easy plasmid. Moreover, we tested the hybrid gene sequence for absence of mutations, using the Sanger sequencing. We also calculated the nucleatic sequence of the tbf gene. The obtained results have both scientific and practical significance.

Open access
A variety of processes that affect the perception of skin aging

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the most important factors affecting perceived age. Aging is an unavoidable and irreversible process, but perceived age is a modifiable psychosocial factor. Our exterior has become one of the determinants of our social position, the key to success in our professional and personal lives. Today, we see people through their appearance, we judge after the first impression. With the help of aesthetic medicine, we can change the perceived age, but we cannot stop aging. This article discusses factors affecting the perceived age, such as hair color, skin color, general appearance and environmental factors. Many cannot be avoided, but we can make changes in life to look younger and more well-groomed. Indeed, we can change our habits for the benefit of the whole body, not only for the skin.

Open access