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Over the last 20 years, sport for development (SFD) has become an increasingly used tool to tackle education-related challenges around the world and has even become recognized by major international institutions such as the United Nations and the Commonwealth. In spite of this, evidence on the effectiveness of SFD programs on educational outcomes is limited. Through a Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA), this paper seeks to begin addressing this gap. Literature is included if it quantitatively examines the relationship between participation in a SFD program and educational outcomes, namely academic performance, school attendance, or attitudes and behaviors related to school. Results are then organized and presented according to these aforementioned areas. The identified literature paints a mixed picture of SFD’s impact on educational outcomes related to academic performance and school attendance, though the data related to improved attitude and behavior is more positive. Overall, the lack of research on this topic and the deficiencies in some of the identified studies do not allow for the conclusion that SFD generates positive education-related outcomes. This paper concludes by proposing potential solutions to address this gap in research.


Feedback has been shown to influence the extent and rate of learning. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of Knowledge of Results (KR) on more accurate trials versus KR on less accurate trials on intrinsic motivation, self-confidence and anxiety changes. Participants were 60 female students with a mean age of 16 years (SD = 0.4). Participants practiced volleyball serve task in 4 session (each session included 6 blocks and each block included 6 trials) that subjects received feedback on 3 trials out of 6 trials at the completion of each 6-trial block. While one group was provided KR about the accuracy of the 3 best serves in each block, another group was given KR about the 3 poorest serves. Participants completed the intrinsic motivation inventory and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) twice as pre-test and post-test. Both groups increased their service scores across practice blocks. On the retention test without KR, which was performed seven day after the practice phase, the more accurate trials group had higher accuracy scores than the less accurate trials group. The present findings demonstrated that feedback after relatively accurate as opposed to inaccurate trials enhanced learner’s perceived competence whereas KR on less accurate trials decreased. In addition, results demonstrated that feedback after relatively accurate as opposed to inaccurate trials enhanced learner’s perceived competence whereas KR on less accurate trials decreased.


Presented paper contains looks which mainly attempt to analyse the promotion in sport by social media and brand image management on the example of „Connected by football” channel.

Research process required usage of diagnostic survey method. Exploration shows that social media has contributed to popularisation and improved the image of the Polish National Football Team. Respondents’ opinions about the formula of the „Connected by football” channel. The reasons and motives for the interest of the „Connected by football” channel are mainly involved with sports activities and the team’s life outside of trainings and matches. Survey shows that half of the respondents changed their mind about the players after watching the video materials and due to this fact the emotional bond between players and supporters increase. The research presents that „Connected by football” channel played a significant role in Polish National Football Team image’s building.


The article presents differences in describing sportspeople during the last four Olympic Games in terms of gender and nationality in Polish newspapers. The fundamental goal of the research was to perform the quantitative and qualitative comparison of press materials from four Olympics (Vancouver 2010, London 2012, Sochi 2014, Rio de Janeiro 2016). The content analysis was used for the quantitative part of the study and critical discourse analysis of two newspapers (the broadsheet and tabloid) in Poland for qualitative part. 712 media articles were analyzed. Our analysis has revealed significant underrepresentation of women and also differences in the description of rival competitors as well as overrepresentation of articles about Polish representatives during the Olympics. Those articles dwelt on the issue of nationality much more often and were more emotionally charged. Also, to a great extent, the performance of non-Polish women athletes was left unconsidered. The authors therefore indicate the validity of combining gender analysis and nationality in the context of the Olympic Games.


This paper focuses on personal statements written by 23 Year 11 students about what outdoor recreational activities they participated in and their sense of cultural identity in the culturally plural context of Australia.. A sociological approach of inductive analysis of their comments was employed to investigate the extent to which those of culturally diverse identities were actually participating in outdoor recreational activities. The respondents came from six Adelaide co-educational secondary schools which agreed to participate in the study. The responses given to the guideline questions provided evidence of participation in twelve different outdoor recreational activities, some involving individual pursuits and others group activities. Twelve students identified themselves as ‘mainstream Australian’, while eight claimed identities linked to other European and Asian cultural groups and three reported no sense of cultural identification. The evidence from this exploratory study was that those of culturally diverse identities were actually participating in outdoor recreational activities. However, they were more likely to be involved in individual rather than group activities. Furthermore they preferred land-based activities to those requiring water skills. The paper discusses the significance of the findings, implications for making future initiatives and policies in outdoor recreational activities more inclusive, as well as directions for further research.


The objective of the present study was to analyse the position of sport as a quality of the life domain (QOLD) in subjective quality of life (S-QOL) in deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH) people with different sport participation level. Three groups of D/HH people (n=164) were recruited for the study: elite and competitive athletes (ECA; n=30; mean age 22.2±1.8 years), recreational athletes (RA; n=22; mean age 25.2±2.0 years) and non-athletes (NA; n=112; mean age 26.8±1.9 years). D/HH ECA are the most satisfied in their lives equally with their sport participation, social relations, physical health and the level of independence together with general health. D/HH RA reported the highest satisfaction with sport participation, social relations and with physical health and the level of independence. Position of sport is in ECA and RA lives is the priority number one as well as the satisfaction with other QOLDs as social relations, physical health and level of independence. The position of sport participation in D/HH NA among the QOLDs was interestingly in the second place in the order together with physical health and level of independence domain. Inclusive participation in sport from the earliest age of D/HH children together with able-bodied peers should help better understand mutual communication. Than D/HH people would remain in regular sport participation in later life and so S-QOL among D/HH minority population would be significantly increased.



The number of patients depending on long-term invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) has been increasing for several years. Anecdotal reports indicate heterogeneous health structures, opaque patient pathways, nontransparent and sometimes questionable practices in individual areas of care, inadequate quality standards and control mechanisms in Germany. However, there is hardly any empirical data on this topic.


To report findings from a qualitative study conducted as part of a complex research project to assess the appropriateness of care provided to IMV patients in Germany.


Thirteen semi-structured expert interviews were conducted with 22 health professionals providing care for IMV patients. The data analysis was conducted with MAXQDA according to the framework by Meuser and Nagel.


Interviewees emphasized similar healthcare deficits. They considered health providers to be nontransparent and influenced by secondary interests. Quality of care is reported to be jeopardized by shortage of trained staff. Warranty of self-determination and participatory decision-making is not a matter of fact. Clarifying issues of sustaining life, quality of life and shaping the end of life is often ignored. The professionals are familiar with the patient pathways, allocation processes and responsibilities described in existing guidelines, but criticize the fact that they are not sufficiently binding. Accordingly, patient pathways are frequently individual results of experience-based, informal networking, and often left to chance.


The results point to a considerable need for action to reach an appropriate, integrated, patient-centered level of care for long-term IMV patients and ensure its quality.



The aim of this scoping review is to map the current landscape of published research and perspectives on physician suicide. Findings could serve as a roadmap for further investigations and potentially inform efforts to prevent physician suicide.


Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Scopus were searched for English-language publications from August 21, 2017 through April 28, 2018. Inclusion criteria were a primary outcome or thesis focused on suicide (including suicide completion, attempts, and thoughts or ideation) among medical students, postgraduate trainees, or attending physicians. Opinion articles were included. Studies that were non-English or those that only mentioned physician burnout, mental health, or substance use disorders were excluded. Data extraction was performed by two authors.


The search yielded 1,596 articles, of which 347 articles passed to the full-text review round. The oldest article was an editorial from 1903; 210 (60.3%) articles have been published from 2000 to present. Authors originated from 37 countries, and 143 (41.2%) were opinion articles. The most discussed were suicide risk factors and culture of practice issues, while the least discussed themes included public health and postvention.


Consistency and reliability of data and information about physician suicides could be improved. Data limitations partly contribute to these issues. Also, various suicide risk factors for physicians have been explored, and several remain poorly understood. Based on this scoping review, a public health approach, including surveillance and early warning systems, investigations of sentinel cases, and postvention may be impactful next steps in preventing physician deaths by suicide.


In the perspective of the General Theory of Fighting Arts, an analysis of socio-cultural factors that determine the opposition of the role of a teacher of martial arts (Jap. sensei) to the role of a sports trainers was undertaken. The structural cultural context, cultural patterns, and social institutions resulting from divergent goals were taken into account. The roles of teachers and trainers result from these conditions. The existence of the separate roles of the master-teacher in martial arts and the sports trainer was established. These roles manifest themselves in different relations with students or players. Democratic and egalitarian interactions in sports teams include player and coach relations. In traditional martial arts, the dominance of the teacher is more accepted. However, there is also a social position combining the features of the sensei and the trainer that is typical for combat sports that are also martial arts (participating in sports competitions). As there are relationships of subordination in the hierarchical societies of Japan and Korea, there is no problem with recognizing the primary role of the sensei in these cultures. The position of the master-teacher is also sanctified by tradition. Reducing educational systems, which are the paths of martial arts, to oriental varieties of sports would be a serious factual mistake.


The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of an interdisciplinary program of Greek folk dance, with topics from history and geography on Middle School students’ goal orientation and anxiety level. The sample consisted of 260 students (134 boys & 126 girls). The experimental group (n=144) followed the interdisciplinary four-week program (two lessons per week) while the control group (n=126) followed the corresponding typical physical education program. For the data collection, the questionnaire used was the “Goal orientation” by Papaioannou, Milosis, Kosmidou, and Tsiggilis (2002) and the Greek version (Kakkos & Zervas, 1996) of “Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2” (Martens et al., 1990). The students filled in the questionnaires before and after their participating in each program. Descriptive statistics, reliability analysis, and Repeated Measures ANOVA were used. Results showed that a. Cronbach’s alpha was satisfactory. b. Τhe experimental group decreased significantly the levels of “ego-strengthening” and “ego-protection”, and on the contrary significantly increase the “personal development”, and “social acceptance”. c. Experimental group’s boys and girls decreased their “ego-strengthening” and “ego-protection”, and enhanced their “personal development” and “social acceptance” more than their control group peers. d. The experimental group decreased the levels of somatic and cognitive anxieties and increased significantly their self-confidence. e. male students increased their self-confidence more than female students. These findings support the view that an interdisciplinary program of traditional Greek dance with issues from history and geography enable us to reduce the rates of ego-strengthening, ego-protection, somatic and cognitive anxiety while simultaneously increases students’ personal development, social acceptance, and self-confidence