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Food Preference of Oryzaephilus Surinamensis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) to Different Types of Plant Products

Abstract

Oryzaephilus surinamensis is one of the stored product insect that commonly found in Malaysia. The biological study through host range or food preferences of O. surinamensis is important for the development of sustainable management practice to control its infestation. The objective of this study was to identify the food preference of O. surinamensis to different plant products in relation to food type and moisture content. Twenty adult of O. surinamensis were exposed to three different group of food; dried fruits (date, raisin, apricot, fig), grain/cereals (rice, barley, oat grout, dried maize), and nuts (almond, ground nut, walnut, cashew nut) for 240h in laboratory Kulliyyah of Science, IIUM Kuantan. Moisture content in each food was also measured. It was found out that the most preferred food by O. surinamensis is oat groat of cereal grain group with medium level of moisture content. Further analysis on food moisture suggested that under current experimental conditions (temperature of 27℃ and 64% relative humidity within 240h of exposure), food moisture content does not affect pest infestation and distribution.

Open access
Assessment of subclinical hypothyroidism for a clinical score and thyroid peroxidase antibody: a comparison with euthyroidism grouped by different thyroid-stimulating hormone levels

Abstract

Background

Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) might have many symptoms of hypothyroidism. The controversy appears to lower the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and group subjects with TSH of more than 3 or even 2.5 mIU/L as SCH subjects.

Objectives

To assess SCH subjects both clinically using Zulewski clinical score and biochemically and to evaluate whether the euthyroid subjects with high-normal TSH (HNT) have any clinical symptom or subnormal biochemical finding.

Methods

A prospective cross-sectional study of 233 subjects, 67 with SCH and 166 euthyroidism, was conducted. Euthyroid subjects were divided according to the level of TSH as HNT (>2.5 mIU/L) and low-normal TSH (0.5–2.5 mIU/L). The subjects were examined for clinical feature including Zulewski clinical score and biochemical evaluations including thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) titer. The comparisons between groups were assessed using independent sample t test, and correlations between variables were evaluated using Pearson correlation.

Results

A significantly higher clinical score and higher frequencies of symptoms were found in the SCH group compared to the euthyroid group. The most frequent symptom was fatigue. Euthyroid subjects with HNT were found to have higher TPO-Ab titers than those with low-normal TSH, P < 0.05. The Zulewski clinical score was positively correlated with TSH and TPO-Ab titer but negatively correlated with the FT4 level, P < 0.05.

Conclusions

Zulewski clinical score is higher in SCH subjects compared to euthyroid subjects and can aid in assessing SCH subjects. A significant correlation exists between Zulewski clinical score and each of the TSH, FT4, and TPO-Ab titer levels. The frequency of TPO-Ab positivity is high in SCH. Additionally, euthyroid with higher TSH levels has higher level of TPO-Ab titer but not higher clinical score.

Open access
Clinical outcomes and surgical preferences for breast-conserving surgery and mastectomy: a propensity score-matched analysis

Abstract

Background

While numerous randomized controlled trials have demonstrated long-term survival rates for patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) comparable to mastectomy, the latter remains the most prevalent surgical option to treat early-stage breast cancer in Thailand.

Objectives

To investigate the potential determinants affecting the decision on selecting BCS or mastectomy for the treatment of early-stage breast cancer and to compare the disease-free survival and overall survival between the treatments using a propensity score-matched analysis.

Methods

Patients diagnosed nonmetastatic breast cancer at the Queen Sirikit Breast Cancer Center from January 2006 to December 2015, were retrospectively identified and grouped intro patients who received BCS or mastectomy. After propensity score matching, 356 BCS and 209 mastectomy patients were identified, and statistical analysis was conducted to determine treatment selection factors and compare disease-free and overall survival.

Results

Disease-free survival and overall survival in months comparing BCS and mastectomy were not statistically different with P values of 0.11 and 0.77, respectively. Determinants of treatment selection found that younger age, surgeon preference, smaller tumor size, and lower tumor grade were statistically significant factors in the selection of BCS over mastectomy. The majority of surgeons had a preference for one treatment over the other (P < 0.001).

Conclusion

The outcome of BCS is comparable to mastectomy in early-stage breast cancer patients. Key determinants affecting the selection of treatment were identified to be patient age, characteristics of the tumor, and surgeon’s preference.

Open access
Common orthopedic problems in the neonate: a comparative study of 2 periods at a tertiary-care hospital

Abstract

Background

In 1975, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital (KCMH) in Bangkok, Thailand, published data on common orthopedic problems in neonates.

Objectives

To determine the more recent incidence of these conditions and to compare the results with those reported 40 years ago by KCMH. The data were also compared with a recent report from Siriraj Hospital.

Methods

We reviewed medical records of newborn infants from 2012 to 2016, all of whom were born in KCMH with deformities of upper and lower extremities or other birth-related injuries. The cases were grouped according to International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition. The incidence of common neonatal orthopedic problems was calculated as cases per 1,000 live births and compared, using a chi-squared test, with the earlier data from KCMH and with the data recently reported by Siriraj hospital.

Results

Of the 24,825 live births, 54% were male and 46% were female. The average birth weight was 3,052.2 ± 516.1 g (range, 535–5,320 g) for infants. The most common deformity was postural clubfoot, followed by calcaneovalgus and hip dysplasia, with incidences of 1.37, 0.93 and 0.52 per 1,000 live births, respectively. The incidence of calcaneovalgus, metatarsus adductus, and clubfoot was lower than in the 1975 study and in the report from Siriraj. In all 3 studies, the incidence of birth-related injury was similar and clavicular fracture was the most common, with a rate of 1.3/1,000 live births.

Conclusion

The incidence of common neonatal orthopedic problems varies among institutions. Birth-related injury is a major challenge. The results may be utilized as updated data and as a starting point for parental education.

Open access
Conservative surgical management for immediate postpartum hemorrhage

Abstract

Background

Conservative surgical management for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), such as balloon tamponade, uterine compression suture, and uterine artery ligation, has the benefit of preserving reproductive function.

Objectives

To assess the efficacy and subsequent pregnancy outcome of conservative surgical management for patients with immediate PPH.

Methods

Medical records of patients who had PPH between January 2011 and December 2016 were reviewed. Conservative surgical management included B-Lynch uterine compression suture, Bakri balloon tamponade, and uterine artery ligation. The treatments were considered successful if patients did not require subsequent hysterectomy. Perioperative complications and subsequent pregnancy outcomes were recorded.

Results

Of 30,271 deliveries, 669 patients experienced PPH or 2.2% of total deliveries. Sixty-one patients (9.1%) did not respond to medical treatment with various uterotonic agents. Hysterectomy was selected initially in 30 patients. Conservative surgical management was performed in 31 patients: 15 Bakri balloon tamponade, 13 uterine compression suture, and 3 uterine artery ligation. There were 3 patients who failed Bakri balloon tamponade and proceeded to perform uterine compression suture with successful outcome. The success rates for conservative surgical treatment were 66.7%, 75%, and 66.7%, respectively. All patients who had successful conservative surgical management resumed normal menstruation. Three out of 11 patients (27.3%) who desired subsequent pregnancy were able to conceive and carry out a viable pregnancy.

Conclusion

Conservative surgical management has acceptable success rates for controlling intractable immediate PPH. Implementation of such procedures should be done to preserve fertility and decrease maternal morbidity and mortality.

Open access
Distinguishing magnetic resonance imaging features between idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis and secondary hypertrophic pachymeningitis

Abstract

Background

Hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP) is a rare chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by marked fibrous thickening of the cerebral and/or spinal dura mater. This condition is caused by infection, inflammation, autoimmune disorder, neoplasms, or idiopathic. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may play an important role in differentiating idiopathic HP from secondary HP, may avoid unnecessarily invasive dural biopsy, and prompt specific treatment.

Objective

To determine the specific MRI findings for differentiation between idiopathic HP and secondary HP.

Method

A total of 34 patients underwent MRI of the brain and cervical spine from January 2003 to December 2015. In all, 23 patients were diagnosed idiopathic HP and 11 patients were secondary HP. Demographic data and imaging findings reveal the following: configuration, thickness, signal intensity on T1-weighted image (T1WI), T2-weighted image (T2WI), and enhancement pattern of the lesions. The data were analyzed by T-test and Fisher’s exact test.

Result

Secondary HP were significantly located at anterior and middle cranial fossa (P = 0.033). There is no significant difference of lesions in configurations, T1 and T2 signal intensity and patterns of enhancement. There was significant and exclusive difference in T2 hypointense/dark intensity and homogeneous enhancement in idiopathic HP (75%, P = 0.044).

Conclusions

MRI may play a complimentarily important role in distinguishing idiopathic HP from secondary HP. Idiopathic HP is probably preferred diagnosis in the lesions with T2-rim pattern and T2 hypointense/dark intensity with homogeneous enhancement.

Open access
A 7-year-old boy with hand tremors and a novel mutation for L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

Abstract

L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA), which is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the encoding L2HGDH gene. Neurological symptoms are the main predominant clinical signs. The distinctive feature is the specific multifocal lesion of the white matter detected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 7-year-old male patient of Turkish origin was admitted to the hospital because of hand tremors. Physical examination revealed macrocephaly, intention tremors, walking disability and ataxic gait. Urine organic acid analysis showed increased excretion of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid (L2HG acid). Analysis of the L2HGDH gene revealed a novel homozygous c.368A>G, p. (Tyr123Cys) mutation. L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a cerebral organic aciduria that may lead to various neurological complications. Early recognition of symptoms of L2HGA is important for initiation of supportive therapy that may slow down the progression of the disease.

Open access
Association of genetic polymorphisms in the Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) gene with coronary artery disease and serum mgp levels

Abstract

Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is an important regulatory protein for inhibition of calcification in the vessel wall and cartilage. The MGP gene polymorphisms are suspected to increase the risk of extracellular calcification through altering the related gene expression and serum MGP levels. The goal of this study was to examine the correlation between rs4236 (Thr83-Ala), rs12304 (Glu60-X) and rs1800802 (T138-C) polymorphisms of the MGP gene and coronary artery calcification. Serum MGP levels of 168 subjects who had undergone coronary angiography were analyzed along with genotyping of MGP gene polymorphisms. The results indicated that serum MGP levels were significantly associated with rs4236 and rs1800802 polymorphisms of the MGP gene with the occurrence of coronary artery diseases (CAD). Allelic distributions of MGP gene polymorphisms and serum MGP levels, respectively, were not significantly interconnected with the presence of CAD. Our results revealed that serum MGP levels of CAD patients show association with rs4236 and rs1800802 polymorphisms, but serum MGP levels alone do not directly reflect the risk of CAD. The role of MGP genetic variants on formation and progression of arterial calcification should be regarded in cardiovascular diseases.

Open access
Association of variants in the CP, ATOX1 and COMMD1 genes with Wilson disease symptoms in Latvia

Abstract

Wilson’s disease (WD) is a copper metabolism disorder, caused by allelic variants in the ATP7B gene. Wilson’s disease can be diagnosed by clinical symptoms, increased copper and decreased cerulopasmin levels, which could all also be by other genetic variants beyond the ATP7B gene, e.g., disturbed ceruloplasmin biosynthesis can be caused by pathogenic allelic variants of the CP gene. Copper metabolism in the organism is affected by several molecules, but pathogenic variants and related phenotypes are described with COMMD1 and ATOX1 genes. The aim of the study was to test other genes, CP, ATOX1 and COMMD1, for possible influence to the manifestation of WD. Patients were enrolled on the basis of Leipzig’s diagnostic criteria, 64 unrelated patients with confirmed WD. Direct sequencing of promoter region of the CP gene and ATOX1 and COMMD1 gene exons was conducted. Statistically significant differences were found between the two variants in the CP gene and the ATP7B genotype (rs66508328 variant AA genotype and the rs11708215 variant GG genotype) were more common in WD patients with an unconfirmed ATP7B genotype. One allelic (intronic) variant was found in the ATOX1 gene without causing the functional changes of the gene. Three allelic variants were identified in the COMMD1 gene. No statistically significant differences were found between allele and genotype frequencies and the first clinical manifestations of WD. Different variants of the CP gene contributed to a WD-like phenotype in clinically confirmed WD patients with neurological symptoms and without identified pathogenic variants in the ATP7B gene. Allelic variants in the ATOX1 and COMMD1 genes do not modify the clinical manifestation of WD in Latvian patients. (266 words)

Open access