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S. Yamakawa, O. Razvina, M. Ito, H. Hibino, T. Someya and T. Ushiki

Abstract

For more than 25 years Niigata University School of Medicine has been organizing medical exchanges with universities of the Russian Far East and Siberia. This exchange has turned out to be mutually beneficial for both universities, giving motivation to medical students and young doctors to strive for knowledge of international medicine. “Program for priority placement of foreign students sponsored by Japanese government” and “Re-inventing Japan project” initiated by Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) were adopted in 2014, so it gave us a perfect opportunity to expand the existing program. In 2017, the MEXT approved the application of Niigata University together with Hokkaido University for «Program of Globalization in the field of university education (in cooperation with Russia), the creation of a platform for interaction”. We hope advances in the field of medicine and medical care achieved as a result of such unique cooperation between Japan and Russia will greatly contribute not only to the welfare of citizens of both countries, but also to the development of industry and economy. We would like to share experience gained by our university in the sphere of Japanese-Russian medical exchanges and educational programs, as well to describe the prospects for further development.

Open access

K. Kononovich, Jean-Marc Macé and E. Yuryeva

Abstract

The challenges of medical demography have become a major issue today in France, mainly because of the conjunction of two phenomena. Namely, a massive retirement of the “baby boom” generation and a delay in the medical training induced by the “numerus clausus” that had not anticipated that phenomenon. Unfortunately, the repercussion of the population ageing on hospital consumption and consequently on medical demography is very poorly integrated into the calculation and implementation of the medical professions’ numerus clausus in 2010. Thus we suggest a model that not only identifies the effective demand for care on operational geographical scale, namely, the health territory, but that also makes a projection of healthcare consumption based on the age of population of each “health territory” in a T+1 future. To illustrate this model, we take as example the obstetricians’ activity in France.

Open access

E. Avdeeva, S. Nikulina and I. Artyukhov

Abstract

The article discusses the state of Russian education system of future. It is noted that for the effective change of educational process organization, for the increase of modern students’ motivation, it is necessary to reconsider the methods, technologies and the content of higher education, taking global world trends into account. In order to study the out–look on the development of higher education, the following world trends were identified: remote technologies and digital educational resources; creation of digital universities’ models and certification centres for external independent assessment of professional qualifications; introduction of general language for teaching in the system of higher education; organization of training via interactive lectures of the best teachers of the world; introduction of playing and electronic simulators into educational process. However, the attitude to the issues of digitalization of domestic education is debatable in pedagogical circles, dividing the audience into supporters and opponents of this phenomenon, as far as digitalization causes not only a significant change in the appearance of modern education, but digital technologies are aimed at the change of the nature of a person bodily and spiritually. The latest technologies are used for this very purpose, among which are NBIC-technologies – nano, bio, information and cognitive ones. Digital educational space should not do any harm to a person. So, all the participants of this global project, both developers and experts, must take into account the negative consequences of the impact of digital technology on humans. They should not make them the means of destroying domestic education, its culture and morality. If digital technologies are put at the service of a person, Russian higher schools will be really modernized, as well as, medical education in general.

Open access

V. Micheli, M. Bertelli, G. Jacomelli, A. Santucci and G. Bernardini

Abstract

Lesch-Nyhan Disease (LND) is a rare X-linked recessive metabolic and neurological syndrome due to the deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). Besides its well known “housekeeping” function this purine salvage enzyme has revealed an unexpected role in neurodevelopment, unveiled by the peculiar neurological symptoms flanking hyperuricemia in LND: dystonia, choreoathetosis, compulsive self-injurious behaviour. Several lines of research have tried to find the molecular basis for the neurological phenotype after the disease was first described in 1964. Dopaminergic deficit was then found to underlie the neurologic symptoms but the aetiology for such alteration seemed inexplicable. A number of detailed studies in the last 50 years addressed the genetic, metabolic, cognitive, behavioral and anatomical features of this disease. Initial investigations seeked for accumulation of toxic metabolites or depletion of essential molecules to disclose potential connections between purine recycling and neuronal dysfunction. In the last two decades sophisticated biotechnological methods were used for a deeper insight in the genetic and molecular aspects, unveiling a network of combined gene dysregulations in neuronal development and differentiation producing neurotransmission defects. These studies, conducted with several different approaches, allowed consistent steps forward, demonstrating transcriptional aberrations affecting different metabolic pathways in HPRT deficiency, yet leaving many questions still unsolved.

Open access

O.A Gavrilyuk

Abstract

The paper emphasises the potential of the autonomy-oriented approach as a scientific basis for the development of innovative training practices in medical universities of Russia. Based on a review of research, theory, and current teaching practices in Professor V.F. Voino-Yasenetsky Krasnoyarsk State Medical University, the paper considers both theoretical and practical aspects of the autonomy-oriented approach implementation in higher medical education. The benefits of the autonomy-oriented approach for both undergraduate and postgraduate medical students are demonstrated from the perspective of the Self-Determination Theory. Our findings indicate that the autonomy-oriented approach in higher medical education is associated with a more “personalised” teaching style through supporting students’ self-determination, engagement and autonomy. The summative evaluation of the results of the study with participation of 54 medical students and 33 medical university teachers suggests that the use of the autonomy-oriented approach in higher medical education leads to effective implementation of creative, innovative, contextual and problem-based training techniques as well as students’ and teachers’ personal and professional self-development.

Open access