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Open access

E. Avdeeva, S. Nikulina and I. Artyukhov

Abstract

The article discusses the state of Russian education system of future. It is noted that for the effective change of educational process organization, for the increase of modern students’ motivation, it is necessary to reconsider the methods, technologies and the content of higher education, taking global world trends into account. In order to study the out–look on the development of higher education, the following world trends were identified: remote technologies and digital educational resources; creation of digital universities’ models and certification centres for external independent assessment of professional qualifications; introduction of general language for teaching in the system of higher education; organization of training via interactive lectures of the best teachers of the world; introduction of playing and electronic simulators into educational process. However, the attitude to the issues of digitalization of domestic education is debatable in pedagogical circles, dividing the audience into supporters and opponents of this phenomenon, as far as digitalization causes not only a significant change in the appearance of modern education, but digital technologies are aimed at the change of the nature of a person bodily and spiritually. The latest technologies are used for this very purpose, among which are NBIC-technologies – nano, bio, information and cognitive ones. Digital educational space should not do any harm to a person. So, all the participants of this global project, both developers and experts, must take into account the negative consequences of the impact of digital technology on humans. They should not make them the means of destroying domestic education, its culture and morality. If digital technologies are put at the service of a person, Russian higher schools will be really modernized, as well as, medical education in general.

Open access

Nataša Ristić, Vladimir Ajdžanović, Dragana Petrović-Kosanović, Marko Miler, Gordana Ušćebrka and Verica Milošević

Abstract

Andropause, the culminating phase of male ageing, is characterized by deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitarygonadal axis and low circulating free testosterone. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistomorphometric characteristics of the pituitary gonadotropic i.e. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and the luteinizing hormone (LH) producing cells after testosterone application in a rat model of the andropause. Middle-aged Wistar rats were divided into orchidectomized (ORX; n=8) and testosterone treated orchidectomized (ORX+T; n=8) groups. Testosterone propionate (5 mg/kg b.m. /day) was administered for three weeks, while the ORX group received the vehicle alone. Immunohistochemically stained FSH and LH cells underwent morphometric and optical density-related analysis, while circulating concentrations of the sex steroids were measured by immunoassays. Serum concentrations of testosterone and estradiol were significantly (p<0.05) increased by 24 and 2.7 fold respectively, compared to the ORX group. The volume of FSH and LH cells was significantly (p<0.05) decreased by 51.3% and 56.6% respectively, in comparison with ORX rats. Relative volume density of FSH and LH cells was also significantly (p<0.05) decreased by 54.0% and 72.8% respectively, compared to the ORX group. Results related to the optical density of gonadotropic cells (reflecting their hormonal content) were in line with the morphometric findings i.e. this parameter of FSH and LH cells was significantly (p<0.05) decreased by 25.7% and 16.2% respectively, in comparison with ORX rats. Conclusion: In conclusion, applied testosterone increased the serum concentrations of sex steroids, as well as it decreased morphometric parameters and optical density of gonadotropic cells in ORX rats.

Open access

Debora Groppetti, Alessandro Pecile, Stefano Frattini, Giulio Pagnacco and Silvana Arrighi

Abstract

The knowledge about ovarian physiology in small ruminants is still limited, especially when compared to other domestic species. Ovarian function in goats is mainly assessed by ultrasonographic techniques, whereas a quali-quantitative feature of the follicular and luteal structures throughout the reproductive cycle in naturally cycling goats is scarce. This study provides a detailed description of the functional morphology and size of 742 ovarian structures (follicles, corpora hemorrhagica and corpora lutea) in relation to the oestrus phase, the body weight and the age of 25 Alpine goats (Capra hircus). The current study demonstrated that, the number and size of the follicles were related to the stage of the reproductive cycle (P < 0.0001). Also, the mean number of follicles was high during both prepubertal anestrus and diestrus, whereas it was low in the oestrus. Large (3-4 mm in diameter) and very large follicles (> 4 mm) (P < 0.001), and small follicles (< 2 mm; P < 0.05) varied throughout the reproductive cycle, while medium follicles (2-3 mm) were invariably observed. Large and very large follicles were predominant during the diestrus phase and small follicles in the prepubertal anestrus. It is evident from the current study that the number of follicles (P < 0.05) was significantly affected with both body weight and age. On the other hand, the size of follicles was significantly affected with body weight only (P < 0.0001). These results could contribute to a deeper understanding of ovarian transformations with important implications in assisted reproductive technologies, thereby concurring in advancing the efficiency of ultrasound in breeding programs for this species.

Open access

Sukru Kirkan, Ugur Parin and Gamze Balat

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of vancomycin-resistant and Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from urine samples of dogs. A total of 22 Enterococcus sp. samples were isolated and identified from 100 urine samples collected by cystocentesis from dogs of both sexes. The identification with species specific primers for multiplex PCR revealed that all 22 isolates (100%) belonged to E. faecium. Vancomycin resistance was found in 10 (45%) samples of E. faecium strains with PCR study by vanA and vanB primers.

Open access

M Vukovic, N Radlovic, Z Lekovic, K Vucicevic, N Maric, N Kotur, V Gasic, M Ugrin, M Stojiljkovic, L Dokmanovic, B Zukic and S Pavlovic

Abstract

The UGT1A1 enzyme is involved in the metabolism of bilirubin and numerous medications. Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, commonly presented as Gilbert syndrome (GS), is a result of decreased activity of the UGT1A1 enzyme, variable number of TA repeats in the promoter of the UGT1A1 gene affects enzyme activity. Seven and eight TA repeats cause a decrease of UGT1A1 activity and risk GS alleles, while six TA repeats contribute to normal UGT1A1 activity and non-risk GS allele. Also, the UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotype is recognized as a clinically relevant pharmacogenetic marker. The aim of this study was to assess diagnostic value of UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotyping in pediatric GS patients. Correlation of the UGT1A1 (TA)n genotypes and level of unconjugated bilirubin at diagnosis and after hypocaloric and phenobarbitone tests in these patients was analyzed. Another aim of the study was to assess pharmacogenetic potential of UGT1A1 (TA)n variants in Serbia. Fifty-one pediatric GS patients and 100 healthy individuals were genotyped using different methodologies, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by acrylamide electrophoresis, fragment length analysis and/or DNA sequencing. Concordance of the UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter risk GS genotypes with GS was found in 80.0% of patients. Therefore, UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotyping is not a reliable genetic test for GS, but it is useful for differential diagnosis of diseases associated with hyperbilirubinemia. Level of bilirubin in pediatric GS patients at diagnosis was UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotype-dependent. We found that the frequency of pharmacogenetic relevant UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotypes was 63.0%, pointing out that UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotyping could be recommended for preemptive pharmacogenetic testing in Serbia.

Open access

U Fahrioğlu

Abstract

Dear Editor

Next generation sequencing (NGS) has changed the way we approach the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of genetic disorders. It gave us base pair (bp) precision, multi-gene approach that can be executed in a timely and cost-effective manner. Despite some minor technical issues in NGS, it comes with great advantages. However, the clinical, and especially, genetic counseling profession will need to rise to the challenge to face some of the new issues, dilemmas and problems this new technology is bringing to the table. Some of the counseling guidelines predate the NGS era and will urgently need to be brought up to par with the technology.

Open access

E Grbić, A Peterlin, T Kunej and D Petrovič

Abstract

Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the developed world. It is characterized by the formation of a plaque in the walls of middle and large arteries leading to macrovascular complications. Several risk factors are included, with diabetes being one of the most important for the onset and development of atherosclerosis. Due to an increase in the prevalence of diabetes in the world, the incidence of diabetic complications (microvascular and macrovascular) is increasing. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays a important role in atherosclerotic processes. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ belongs to the superfamily of nuclear receptors, has a great presence in fat tissue, macrophages, and regulates gene expression and most of the processes that lead to the onset and development of atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the basic patho-physiological mechanisms of atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Furthermore, we discuss the impact of PPARγ polymorphisms, and the epigenetic mechanisms affecting the onset of atherosclerosis, i.e, DNA methylation and demethylation, histone acetylation and deacetylation, and RNA-based mechanisms. Moreover, we add therapeutic possibilities for acting on epigenetic mechanisms in order to prevent the onset and progression of atherosclerosis.

Open access

AK Khan, SA Khan, Na Muhammad, No Muhammad, J Ahmad, H Nawaz, A Nasir, S Farman and S Khan

Abstract

Human hereditary leukonychia is a rare nail disorder characterized by nail plates whitening on all finger and toe nails. Inheritance pattern is both autosomal dominant and recessive. To date, the only gene, phospholipase C, δ1 (PLCD1), on chromosome 3p22.2 has been reported to be involved in hereditary leukonychia. In the present study, a family of Pakhtun ethnicity, carrying leukonychia phenotype was investigated. The family inherited the phenotype in an autosomal dominant fashion. Affected individuals exhibited characteristic features of hereditary leukonychia with involvement of nails on both the hands and feet. Sequence analysis of DNA detected a p.Cys209Arg mutation, reported for the first time in a Pakistani Pashtun family.

Open access

Q Yuan, ZG Zhao and HJ Yuan

Abstract

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have long been proposed to play important roles in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM). A large proportion of these mutations are localized at the mt-tRNA genes. Owing to its high mutation rate, a growing number of mt-tRNA mutations have been reported; however some of them are neutral genetic polymorphisms and will not result in the alteration of the mitochondrial function responsible for DM. In this study, we reassessed a recent reported “pathogenic” mutation, tRNAGly T10003C, in a clinical manifestation of DM. We first performed the conservation assessment of this mutation between different species. Moreover, the bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the secondary structure of mt-tRNAGly in wild type version and the mutant carrying the T10003C mutation. We also screened the presence of the T10003C mutation in 500 unrelated DM patients and 300 healthy controls. We noticed that the T10003C mutation was not very conserved and did not cause the secondary structure change of mt-tRNAGly. Moreover, this mutation was absent in the 500 unrelated DM patients and controls, suggesting that this mutation may be a rare event in the human population. In conclusion, the current study showed no association between the T10003C mutation and DM in humans.

Open access

A Strajnar, MZ Tansek, KT Podkrajsek, T Battelino and U Groselj

Abstract

Hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome (HI/HA) is the second most common form of persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI). The main clinical characteristics of HI/HA syndrome are repeated episodes of symptomatic hypoglycemia, but not usually severe. Consequently, children with HI/HA syndrome are frequently not recognized in the first months of life. An 8-month-old boy was admitted to a hospital due to hypoglycemia seizures. He also had asymptomatic hyperammonemia with no signs of lethargy or headaches. Genetic testing revealed autosomal dominant syndrome, a mutation in the GLUD1 gene (p.Arg274Cys). The boy started treatment with diazoxide. Subsequent growth and neurological development were normal. Hypoglycemic symptoms in HI/HA syndrome may vary from being non specific to severe. As hypoglycemia could lead to brain injury and impairment of neurological development, timely diagnosis and management are essential. If transient hypoglycemia is ruled out, metabolic disorders must be taken into account.