Sina Amirnahavandirahbar and Mohammad Reza Nasirzadeh
Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by a disorder in the metabolism of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. The liver as a non-insulin dependent organ plays an important role in the regulation of blood fat and glucose. Most blood glucose lowering drugs that are introduced for treatment have side effects in long-term consumption. Therefore, to control diabetes and its complications, the use of herbal drugs is widely considered nowadays. The present study investigates the biochemical effects of oleuropein in diabetic male rats. In this study, 30 adult male Wistar rats with a weight range of 190±30 gr were equally divided into 3 groups randomly: 1) control group or intact animals, 2) diabetic animals, and 3) treatment group, which received 60 mg/kg oleuropein for 30 days by gastric gavage. Diabetes was induced in diabetic and treatment groups by injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. At the end of the treatment, the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, VLDL, blood glucose, HbA1C, and activity of AST and ALT were determined. The results showed that the serum lipid profile and blood glucose increased significantly in the diabetic group compared with the control group (p<0.05). Also, HbA1C and atherogenic index decreased significantly in the treatment group compared with the diabetic group (p<0.05). This study showed that oral administration of oleuropein has hypoglycemic effects, which can reduce the serum levels of the lipids profile and the atherogenic index in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats.
Timothy A. Brusseau and Ryan D. Burns
Study aim: Two thirds of children are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. A solution to physical inactivity is Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programming (CSPAP). Little is known regarding the impact of a school’s physical activity leader on CSPAP effectiveness. Therefore, this study explored changes in physical activity accumulated during school hours in CSPAP schools being led by the physical education teacher compared to a stand-alone physical activity leader.
Zübeyde Aslankeser and Şükrü Serdar Balcı
It is well known that substrate oxidation rates are increased by exercise. The present study had two main objectives: firstly, to examine the effect of a single exhaustive exercise session on post-exercise substrate oxidation and energy expenditure; and secondly, to determine the differences between athletes and non-athletes.
Material and methods: Eighteen healthy male athletes (mean ± SD age; 19.38 ± 2.26 years, VO2max; 60.57 ± 3.90 ml · kg-1 · min-1, n = 8) and non-athletes (age; 20.30 ± 1.26 years, VO2max; 44.97 ± 5.43 ml · kg-1 ·min-1, n = 10) volunteered to participate in the study. After an overnight fast, subjects performed a single sprint exercise session on a cycle ergometer with individual loads (0.075 kg per body weight) until volitional exhaustion. Energy expenditure (EE) and the substrate oxidation rate were measured at rest and during the post-exercise recovery period using indirect calorimetry. Results: Exhaustive exercise significantly increased post-exercise fat oxidation, energy expenditure and contribution of fat to EE (p < 0.05). Also, it significantly decreased post-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation and the contribution of CHO to EE (p < 0.05). However, the changes in the substrate oxidation rate and EE after the exercise test were not different between the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions: The study results suggest that a single short-duration exhaustive exercise session causes a higher fat oxidation rate during recovery than at rest, whereas training status did not affect this situation
Murat Genc, Omer Coban, Ugur Ozenturk and Omer Eltas
The aim of this study was to determine some morphological traits of the udder teat and their influence on the milk flow rate in three dairy cattle breeds (Brown Swiss, Holstein and Simmental). The average milking time and milk yield was 8.79±0.16 minutes and 9.40±0.28 kg, respectively. There was a finding that the breed of the dairy cows had no effect on the total milking time, with the Holstein cows having the highest milk yield (P<0.01). The average milk flow rate was 1.09±0.04 kg/minute and the Holstein cows had the highest milk flow rate (P<0.05). The cow parity didn’t affect the milk flow rate and the milk yield. The average teat length, average teat diameter and average teat volume varied among the cattle breeds and were highest in the Brown Swiss, and lowest in the Simmental cows. In conclusion, the milk flow rate varies among cattle breeds, and it was observed that dairy cows with high milk yields have higher milk flow rates.
Stanimir Dimitrov, Vesna Karapetkovska-Hristova, Ljupce Kochoski, Biljana Trajkovska, Borche Makarijoski, Vesna Prodanovska-Poposka and Godswill Ntsomboh-Ntsefong
The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of season and number of parity on the reproductive performance of sows kept on a commercial farm. To achieve this objective, 800 nrs productive parent sows and a total of 958 parities were analyzed. The results show that sow’s breeding season had a significant effect on the weaning-to-oestrus interval, the farrowing rate, the litter size and weaning piglets with positive results during autumn, winter and spring seasons. The number of parity has a significant effect on the weaning-to-oestrus interval, litter size and weaning piglets with acceptable values in sows with more farrowing. The results of this study on a pig farm with analysis which highlights the risk factors associated with reproductive performance of sows, could be used to improve sow farm practices.
Federica Pirrone, Ludovica Pierantoni, Valerio Albizzati and Mariangela Albertini
Many studies have analyzed the behavior of puppies during their socialization period, while little attention has been paid to the transitional period, when vision and hearing develop. Here, we compared the average age of sensory and motor development, and the behavior among a total of 25 puppies. Each litter was videotaped during 1-hour daily sessions on postnatal days 10-21 and coded for the following mutually exclusive behavioral categories: sleeping, suckling and moving. The moving category included side-to-side head swinging, exploring, rolling and allogrooming. The opening of the eyelids, appearance of the startle response and ability to stand up with either the front or hind legs were identified. The duration and frequency of puppy behaviors varied significantly with breed and season of birth. Breed and gender differences in gross motor and sensory development were also observed. These findings may turn out to be crucial to enhance the welfare, standards of rearing, and behavioral interventions aimed at improving adaptability to novel stimuli in pet dogs.
Laima Liepa and Māra Viduža
The culture of Lactobacillus fermentum was isolated from the biogas substrate. The aim was to evaluate the efficiency of perorally applied L. fermentum additive to prevent metabolic diseases in the early lactation period of dairy cows. The experiment was performed in the early lactation group of a herd with 240 cows. The control and experimental group each consisted of 10 clinically healthy cows with normal concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate and glucose. On day 1–5 (D1–D5), the experimental cows received orally 150 ml of L. fermentum product of 8.1x105 CFU/ml. On D1, D2, D5 and D20, the rumen fluid samples were collected from all animals in both groups with an oral-ruminal probe once per day for detection of pH and concentration of volatile fatty acids, on D1, D5 and D20 – blood samples for biochemical analyses. The data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Results: Significant changes were observed in the concentration of the liver enzymes AST and GGT. On D1, in the experimental animals AST concentration 100.5±14.0 IU/L was higher than in control cows – 51.4±5.7 IU/L (p<0.05). On D20, AST was reduced significantly only in experimental cows. On D1, GGT concentration 31.5±6.91 IU/L was higher (p<0.05) in experimental animals than in control cows – 13.6±1.53 IU/L, but on D5, GGT concentration in experimental animals was reduced to 18.4±6.41 IU/L (p<0.05), and remained until D20. Conclusion: L. fermentum culture administered orally for five days improved the blood liver enzymes in cows, and the effect lasted for two weeks.
Johad Khoury, Elias Andrawus, Boaz Y. Bishop and Zaher S. Azzam
Objectives. Diabetes mellitus is an endemic disease of the current era. It is important to treat it properly. All antidiabetic medications have side effects and various safety profiles.
Case report. Fifty-two years old patient with type II diabetes mellitus, who had spontaneous cutaneous and intra muscular bleeding after starting treatment with Exenatide. The patient’s history did not include any kind of spontaneous bleeding. Investigations did not reveal abnormal platelets count and function or coagulation profile. The use of the Exenatide was discontinued and during one year of follow-up, the patient did not experience an additional occurrence of spontaneous bleeding.
Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous bleeding probably caused by Exenatide. The exact pathophysiology, by which the drug can cause spontaneous bleeding, is still not clear and has to be revealed.