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I. Sukharevа

Abstract

One of the most important developments of modern economics is the concept of economic mechanism design. Mechanism design is the study of economic mechanisms that produce behaviors in public health. The concept has profound implications for management. Management involves the effective use of mechanisms to change behavior. Public health managers must have a strong background in sociology and psychology, negotiation, finance, economics, organizational theory, and leadership. All managers work with limited resources. Managers must understand finance and economics: budgets, investment in the Health Care system, accountability, investment return, optimization, and decision analysis. This feature creates unique challenges for educating and supporting public health managers. To advance public health management as a profession we must apply the basics of mechanism design to its challenges. Leadership science provides a base for development of managers’ personal skills and attributes. Many graduate programs in business management and public administration deal with public health management. Accordingly, application of mechanism design (economic, social and others) in public health management can help managers become more effective. Mechanism design in public health management could provide an important way to improve health of the population.

Open access

N. Goncharenko

Abstract

The paper discusses the new interactive technologies in teaching Russian as a foreign language. Based on a review of literature, research, theory, internet resources and current teaching practices the paper considers both theoretical and practical aspects of the usage of interactive technology in teaching Russian as a foreign language for medical students. The author demonstrates that learning Russian plays a vital role for foreign students studying medicine in Russia, being a prerequisite for their educational and professional work performance during their studies in a Russian university. The new modern technologies of teaching such as interactive teaching technologies largely contribute to the increase of foreign students’ motivation for learning the Russian language, particularly for medical and biological studies, and the efficiency of the learning process, as well as to the development of an active verbal communication during the classroom activities. Teaching experience demonstrates the effectiveness of interactive technologies for the development of speaking proficiency, interpersonal and communication skills. Based on the theory of teaching practice at a medical university and on the literature review as well, we specified the core characteristics of the interactive technologies compared to the traditional methods of teaching. Our review’s results make it possible to suggest that interactive technologies implementation should be based on mechanisms of dialogue, reflexivity and collaboration. These mechanisms contribute to the formation of the communicative as well as professional competence of foreign students.

Open access

A. Shrestha, R. M. Shrestha, S. Shrestha and S. Shrestha

Abstract

An access to adequate and safe blood transfusion services is an essential measure of basic healthcare systems. The main purpose of hemovigilance is to enhance the quality and safety of the blood transfusion chains, which are implemented for improving the quality of the blood transfusion chain processes, especially focusing on blood safety. Globally, the framework of hemovigilance is extending as one of the key escalations to the group of the human services administrations, recognizing restructured blood transfusions administrations.

The core objective of this review article is to highlight the objectives of the hemovigilance framework, historical aspects of the hemovigilance framework around the world and the scenario of Nepal. Furthermore, it likewise features the scopes and strategies for implementation of hemovigilance at a hospital. An acceptance and incorporation of the hemovigilance system in an oncology hospital or in any tertiary care hospitals in Nepal can avert the incidence or reappearance of adverse events due to the transfusion identified with the whole transfusion chain process. Globally, including the least developed country like Nepal, the hemovigilance framework must be incorporated and systematized for upgrading transfusion and general society certainty additionally regarding blood and its products. Different strategies must be made for the successful implementation and strengthening the hemovigilance system.

In conclusion, there is an interminable and endless necessity for the effort on hemovigilance; although the rules, regulations, and tools are in place. With the end goal to have a productive hemovigilance framework in the least developed countries like Nepal, an extensive methodology and enormous ideas are required.

Open access

S. Yamakawa, O. Razvina, M. Ito, H. Hibino, T. Someya and T. Ushiki

Abstract

For more than 25 years Niigata University School of Medicine has been organizing medical exchanges with universities of the Russian Far East and Siberia. This exchange has turned out to be mutually beneficial for both universities, giving motivation to medical students and young doctors to strive for knowledge of international medicine. “Program for priority placement of foreign students sponsored by Japanese government” and “Re-inventing Japan project” initiated by Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) were adopted in 2014, so it gave us a perfect opportunity to expand the existing program. In 2017, the MEXT approved the application of Niigata University together with Hokkaido University for «Program of Globalization in the field of university education (in cooperation with Russia), the creation of a platform for interaction”. We hope advances in the field of medicine and medical care achieved as a result of such unique cooperation between Japan and Russia will greatly contribute not only to the welfare of citizens of both countries, but also to the development of industry and economy. We would like to share experience gained by our university in the sphere of Japanese-Russian medical exchanges and educational programs, as well to describe the prospects for further development.

Open access

K. Kononovich, Jean-Marc Macé and E. Yuryeva

Abstract

The challenges of medical demography have become a major issue today in France, mainly because of the conjunction of two phenomena. Namely, a massive retirement of the “baby boom” generation and a delay in the medical training induced by the “numerus clausus” that had not anticipated that phenomenon. Unfortunately, the repercussion of the population ageing on hospital consumption and consequently on medical demography is very poorly integrated into the calculation and implementation of the medical professions’ numerus clausus in 2010. Thus we suggest a model that not only identifies the effective demand for care on operational geographical scale, namely, the health territory, but that also makes a projection of healthcare consumption based on the age of population of each “health territory” in a T+1 future. To illustrate this model, we take as example the obstetricians’ activity in France.

Open access

E. Avdeeva, S. Nikulina and I. Artyukhov

Abstract

The article discusses the state of Russian education system of future. It is noted that for the effective change of educational process organization, for the increase of modern students’ motivation, it is necessary to reconsider the methods, technologies and the content of higher education, taking global world trends into account. In order to study the out–look on the development of higher education, the following world trends were identified: remote technologies and digital educational resources; creation of digital universities’ models and certification centres for external independent assessment of professional qualifications; introduction of general language for teaching in the system of higher education; organization of training via interactive lectures of the best teachers of the world; introduction of playing and electronic simulators into educational process. However, the attitude to the issues of digitalization of domestic education is debatable in pedagogical circles, dividing the audience into supporters and opponents of this phenomenon, as far as digitalization causes not only a significant change in the appearance of modern education, but digital technologies are aimed at the change of the nature of a person bodily and spiritually. The latest technologies are used for this very purpose, among which are NBIC-technologies – nano, bio, information and cognitive ones. Digital educational space should not do any harm to a person. So, all the participants of this global project, both developers and experts, must take into account the negative consequences of the impact of digital technology on humans. They should not make them the means of destroying domestic education, its culture and morality. If digital technologies are put at the service of a person, Russian higher schools will be really modernized, as well as, medical education in general.

Open access

V. Micheli, M. Bertelli, G. Jacomelli, A. Santucci and G. Bernardini

Abstract

Lesch-Nyhan Disease (LND) is a rare X-linked recessive metabolic and neurological syndrome due to the deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). Besides its well known “housekeeping” function this purine salvage enzyme has revealed an unexpected role in neurodevelopment, unveiled by the peculiar neurological symptoms flanking hyperuricemia in LND: dystonia, choreoathetosis, compulsive self-injurious behaviour. Several lines of research have tried to find the molecular basis for the neurological phenotype after the disease was first described in 1964. Dopaminergic deficit was then found to underlie the neurologic symptoms but the aetiology for such alteration seemed inexplicable. A number of detailed studies in the last 50 years addressed the genetic, metabolic, cognitive, behavioral and anatomical features of this disease. Initial investigations seeked for accumulation of toxic metabolites or depletion of essential molecules to disclose potential connections between purine recycling and neuronal dysfunction. In the last two decades sophisticated biotechnological methods were used for a deeper insight in the genetic and molecular aspects, unveiling a network of combined gene dysregulations in neuronal development and differentiation producing neurotransmission defects. These studies, conducted with several different approaches, allowed consistent steps forward, demonstrating transcriptional aberrations affecting different metabolic pathways in HPRT deficiency, yet leaving many questions still unsolved.

Open access

O.A Gavrilyuk

Abstract

The paper emphasises the potential of the autonomy-oriented approach as a scientific basis for the development of innovative training practices in medical universities of Russia. Based on a review of research, theory, and current teaching practices in Professor V.F. Voino-Yasenetsky Krasnoyarsk State Medical University, the paper considers both theoretical and practical aspects of the autonomy-oriented approach implementation in higher medical education. The benefits of the autonomy-oriented approach for both undergraduate and postgraduate medical students are demonstrated from the perspective of the Self-Determination Theory. Our findings indicate that the autonomy-oriented approach in higher medical education is associated with a more “personalised” teaching style through supporting students’ self-determination, engagement and autonomy. The summative evaluation of the results of the study with participation of 54 medical students and 33 medical university teachers suggests that the use of the autonomy-oriented approach in higher medical education leads to effective implementation of creative, innovative, contextual and problem-based training techniques as well as students’ and teachers’ personal and professional self-development.

Open access