Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 167 items for :

  • Biomedical Engineering x
  • Technical and Applied Physics x
Clear All
Open access

Toshizo Katsuda, Rumi Gotanda, Tatsuhiro Gotanda, Takuya Akagawa, Nobuyoshi Tanki, Tadao Kuwano, Atsushi Noguchi and Kouichi Yabunaka

Abstract

The strength and density change of the ultraviolet (UV) ray of Gafchromic EBT2 were investigated. Previous studies suggested that UV-A rays can be substituted for the x-ray double-exposure technique to correct Gafchromic EBT2’s non-uniformity error. In this study, we aimed to determine the appropriate strength of UV-A rays for irradiating an active layer that would correct the non-uniformity error of Gafchromic EBT2.

UV-A rays with a wavelength of 375 nm were used to irradiate Gafchromic EBT2 in various durations, and the resulting density change was investigated. To correct Gafchromic EBT2’s non-uniformity error, a pre-irradiation with a UV-A lamp was conducted at a distance of 72 cm for 30 min. To determine the most appropriate irradiation duration, a UV light-emitting diode generating UV-A of 375 nm was used to irradiate the Gafchromic EBT2 film with varying durations of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min at a distance of 5.3 cm. A 12.7 diameter region of interest was set by the irradiation area, and a histogram of pixel values was created. The condition options were decided based on two important requirements: 1) no zero values of the mode and seconds exist, and 2) the 1/10 value of the mode intersects both histogram sleeves.

In the case of Gafchromic EBT2, the irradiation strength was 85.43 mJ/cm2 for one minute in which the pixel value of mean ± SD was 255.34 ± 213.29. The irradiation duration of 4 min was the border duration of the above two conditions. When a UV ray of 375 nm wavelength is used to irradiate Gafchromic EBT2 as a substitute for x-ray exposure, the 4-min pre-irradiation duration (341.74 mJ/cm2) is demonstrably sufficient.

Open access

Aysan Mohammad Namdar, Mohammad Mohammadzadeh, Murat Okutan and Asghar Mesbahi

Abstract

A review on the radiobiological modeling of radiation-induced hypothyroidism after radiation therapy of head-and-neck cancers, breast cancer, and Hodgkin’s lymphoma is presented. The current review is based on data relating to dose-volume constrains and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) as a function of either radiobiological or (pre)treatment-clinical parameters. Also, these data were explored in order to provide more helpful criteria for radiobiological optimization of treatment plans involving thyroid gland as a critical normal organ.

Open access

Bilalodin, Kusminarto, Gede Bayu Suparta, Arief Hermanto, Dwi Satya Palupi and Yohannes Sardjono

Abstract

The genetic algorithm method is a new method used to obtain radiation beams that meet the IAEA requirements. This method is used in optimization of configurations and compositions of materials that compose double layered Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA). The double layered BSA is modeled as having two layers of material for each of the components, which are the moderator, reflector, collimator, and filter. Up to 21st generation, the optimization results in four (4) individuals having the capacity to generate the most optimum radiation beams. The best configuration, producing the most optimum radiation beams, is attained by using combinations of materials, that is by combining Al with either one of CaF2 and PbF2for moderator; combining Pb material with either Ni or Pb for reflector; combining Ni and either FeC or C for collimator, and FeC+LiF and Cd for fast and thermal neutron filter. The parameters of radiation resulted from the four configurations of double layer BSA adequately satisfy the standard of the IAEA.

Open access

Samuel N. A. Tagoe, Samuel Y. Mensah and John J. Fletcher

Abstract

Objectives: The present study aimed to generate intensity-modulated beams with compensators for a conventional telecobalt machine, based on dose distributions generated with a treatment planning system (TPS) performing forward planning, and cannot directly simulate a compensator.

Materials and Methods: The following materials were selected for compensator construction: Brass, Copper and Perspex (PMMA). Boluses with varying thicknesses across the surface of a tissue-equivalent phantom were used to achieve beam intensity modulations during treatment planning with the TPS. Beam data measured for specific treatment parameters in a full scatter water phantom with a 0.125 cc cylindrical ionization chamber, with a particular compensator material in the path of beams from the telecobalt machine, and that without the compensator but the heights of water above the detector adjusted to get the same detector readings as before, were used to develop and propose a semi-empirical equation for converting a bolus thickness to compensator material thickness, such that any point within the phantom would receive the planned dose. Once the dimensions of a compensator had been determined, the compensator was constructed using the cubic pile method. The treatment plans generated with the TPS were replicated on the telecobalt machine with a bolus within each beam represented with its corresponding compensator mounted on the accessory holder of the telecobalt machine.

Results: Dose distributions measured in the tissue-equivalent phantom with calibrated Gafchromic EBT2 films for compensators constructed based on the proposed approach, were comparable to those of the TPS with deviation less than or equal to ± 3% (mean of 2.29 ± 0.61%) of the measured doses, with resultant confidence limit value of 3.21. Conclusion: The use of the proposed approach for clinical application is recommended, and could facilitate the generation of intensity-modulated beams with limited resources using the missing tissue approach rendering encouraging results.

Open access

Hideharu Miura, Shuichi Ozawa, Tsubasa Enosaki, Masahiro Hayata, Kiyoshi Yamada and Yasushi Nagata

Abstract

We investigated the gantry-angle classifier performance with a fluence map using three machine-learning algorithms, and compared it with human performance. Eighty prostate cases were investigated using a seven-field-intensity modulated radiotherapy treatment (IMRT) plan with beam angles of 0°, 50°, 100°, 155°, 205°, 260°, and 310°. The k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), logistic regression (LR), and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms were used. In the observer test, three radiotherapists assessed the gantry angle classification in a blind manner. The precision and recall rates were calculated for the machine learning and observer test. The average precision rate of the k-NN and LR algorithms were 94.8% and 97.9%, respectively. The average recall rate of the k-NN and LR algorithms were 94.3% and 97.9%, respectively. The SVM had 100% precision and recall rates. The gantry angles of 0°, 155°, and 205° had an accuracy of 100% in all algorithms. In the observer test, average precision and recall rates were 82.6% and 82.6%, respectively. All observers could easily classify the gantry angles of 0°, 155°, and 205° with a high degree of accuracy. Misclassifications occurred in gantry angles of 50°, 100°, 260°, and 310°. Machine learning could better classify gantry angles for prostate IMRT than human beings. In particular, the SVM algorithm had a perfect classification of 100%.

Open access

Maede Hasan Abdali, Karim Khoshgard and Abdolazim Sedighi Pashaki

Abstract

Purpose: To develop a multiple logistic regression model as normal tissue complication probability model by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) technique in breast cancer patients treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), we focused on the changes of pulmonary function tests to achieve the optimal predictive parameters for the occurrence of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (SRP).

Materials and methods: Dosimetric and spirometry data of 60 breast cancer patients were analyzed. Pulmonary function tests were done before RT, after completion of RT, 3, and 6 months after RT. Multiple logistic regression model was used to obtain the effective predictive parameters. Forward selection method was applied in NTCP model to determine the effective risk factors from obtained different parameters.

Results: Symptomatic radiation pneumonitis was observed in five patients. Significant changes in pulmonary parameters have been observed at six months after RT. The parameters of mean lung dose (MLD), bridge separation (BS), mean irradiated lung volume (ILVmean), and the percentage of the ipsilateral lung volume that received dose of 20 Gy (IV20) introduced as risk factors using the LASSO technique for SRP in a multiple normal tissue complication probability model in breast cancer patients treated with 3D-CRT. The BS, central lung distance (CLD) and ILV in tangential field have obtained as 23.5 (20.9-26.0) cm, 2.4 (1.5-3.3) cm, and 12.4 (10.6-14.3) % of lung volume in radiation field in patients without pulmonary complication, respectively.

Conclusion: The results showed that if BS, CLD, and ILV are more than 23 cm, 2 cm, and 12%, respectively, so incidence of SRP in the patients will be considerable. Our multiple NTCP LASSO model for breast cancer patients treated with 3D-CRT showed that in order to have minimum probability of SRP occurrence, parameters of BS, IV20, ILV and especially MLD would be kept in minimum levels. Considering dose-volume histogram, the mean lung dose factor is most important parameter which minimizing it in treatment planning, minimizes the probability of SRP and consequently improves the quality of life in breast cancer patients.

Open access

Jerrin Amalraj, Ramasubramanian Velayudham and Pichandi Anchineyan

Abstract

Shielded silicon diodes are commonly employed in commissioning of Cyberknife 6 MV photon beams. This study aims to measure output factors, off centered ratio (OCR), percentage depth dose (PDD) of 6 MV photons using shielded and unshielded diodes and to compare with Gafchromic EBT3 film measurements to investigate whether EBT3 could effectively characterize small 6 MV photon beams. Output factors, OCR and PDD were measured with shielded and unshielded silicon detectors in a radiation field analyzer system at reference condition. Water equivalent solid phantom were used while irradiating EBT3 films. From multiuser data, diodes underestimated output factor by 3% for collimator fields ≤ 10 mm, while EBT3 underestimated the output factor by 3.9% for 5 mm collimator. 1D Gamma analysis of OCR between diode and film, results in gamma ≤ 1 for all measured points with 1 mm distance to agreement (DTA) and 1% relative dose difference (DD). Dose at surface is overestimated with diodes compared to EBT3. PDD results were within 2% relative dose values between diode and EBT3 except for 5 mm collimator. Except for small collimator fields of up to 10 mm, results of output factor, OCR, PDD of all detectors used in this study exhibited similar results. Relative dose measurements with Gafchromic EBT3 in this work show that EBT3 films can be used effectively as an independent tool to verify commissioning beam data of small fields only after careful verification of methodology for any systematic errors with appropriate readout procedure.

Open access

Habib Ahmad, Misbah Ahmad, Shahid Ali, M. Rauf Khattak, Wajeeha Shaheen, Jawad A. Gilani and Khalil Ahmad

Abstract

The goal of radiotherapy is to deliver prescribed dose to the target volume and simultaneously minimize the dose to the healthy organs. The purpose of this work was to verify the accuracy of calculations carried out with a treatment planning system (TPS). Measurements carried out with thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) were compared with doses calculated with TPS. Doses were measured and calculated both in the open beam’s region and under individual blocks. Measurements were performed in the Randophantom. The work was carried out for photon beams generated in the Varian CLINAC 2100C accelerator. The maximum / minimum percentage differences between measured and calculated doses were 4.9/0.6%, 2.6/0%, and 3.5%/0.5% in open, shielded and partially shielded points, respectively. Differences between the measured and calculated doses were within acceptable limits.

Open access

Thokchom Dewan Singh

Abstract

In the radiotherapy practice, regulator defines risk in terms of physically measurable quantities and attempt to implement the results obtained from the risk assessment of this practice, using quantitative approach. Although such approach has significantly brought down radiation dose, injuries and fatalities to the workers as compared to the radiotherapy practices before World War II, the objectivity concept of risk that limits the assessment regarding physically measurable quantities is widely urged throughout the world. This study examined how the risk associated with radiotherapy practice has been perceived, and experienced by both professional and non-professional workers in the radiotherapy facilities located in Manipur, Meghalaya, and Assam. This study found that professional and nonprofessional workers exhibited different risk perception on the same physical risk. Such different risk perceptions influenced the establishment of radiological protection systems in the facility. Non-professional workers are more likely to be the affected group in a facility having weak radiological protection systems.

Open access

Krisanat Chuamsaamarkkee, Putthiporn Charoenphun, Natthaporn Kamwang, Sahakan Monthonwattana, Wirote Changmuang, Kittiphong Thongklam, Arpakorn Kositwattanarerk, Yoch Anongpornjossakul, Wichana Chamroonrat and Chanika Sritara

Abstract

Background: 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) offers an effectively targeted radionuclide therapy in pediatric patients. According to radiation protection authority in our country, the patient treated with high-dose (>1100 MBq) radioiodine is recommended to stay in the hospital. Hence, this study intends to measure the radiation exposure in nonlead-lined treatment room installing with portable lead shields located in general pediatric ward and surrounding areas. In addition, this study also aims to measure the radiation exposure to the family caregiver in pediatric patients received high dose 131I-mIBG.

Methods: Environmental OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) monitoring devices (InLight®, Al2O3:C) were prepared and calibrated by Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT). Twenty-five set of OSLs were placed in and surrounded the treatment room. Dose to family caregiver was recorded by digital semiconductor dosimeter (ALOKA PDM-112) also calibrated by TINT. The measurement was carried for four pediatric patients treated with 131IMIBG (activity 3700 – 5500 MBq).

Results: The ambient doses equivalent and the dose rate were analyzed, the limit of 10 and 0.5 μSv/h are accepted for radiation worker and member of the public, respectively. The dose rate around the patient bed and toilet were high as expected. Dose rates at the wall of adjacent room and corridor were slightly greater than the public limit (range 1.82 to 4.48 μSv/h). Remarkably, the dose rates at caregiver chair (outside the shielding) were exceeded the limits (30.57 ± 5.69 μSv/h). Consequently, this was correlated with high personal dose equivalent to family caregivers which listed as 175, 1632, 6760 and 7433 μSv for the patient age of 15, 5, 1 and 1 year respectively.

Conclusion: These radiation monitoring data provided the important information to manage radiation protection and aware of radiation exposure when using non-lead-lined treatment room in general pediatric ward.