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Open access

V. Vetvicka and R. Fernandez-Botran

Summary

Immunosuppression caused by parasitic infections represents the foremost way by which the parasites overcome or escape the host’s immune response. Glucan is a well-established natural immunomodulator with the ability to significantly improve immune system, from innate immunity to both branches of specific immunity. Our review is focused on the possible role of glucan’s action in antiparasite therapies and vaccine strategies. We concluded that the established action of glucan opens a new window in treatment and protection against parasitic infections.

Open access

N. B. Terenina, N. D. Kreshchenko, N. B. Mochalova and S. O. Movsesyan

Summary

The serotoninergic and FMRFamidergic nervous system of the attachment organs of trematodes were examined using immunocytochemical techniques and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Adult trematodes from eight families as well as cercariae and metacercariae from ten families were studied. TRITC-conjugated phalloidin was used to stain the muscle fibres. The serotonin- and FMRFamide-immunoreactive (IR) nerve cells and fibres were revealed to be near the muscle fibres of the oral and ventral suckers of the trematodes and their larvae. The results indicate the important role of neurotransmitters, serotonin and neuropeptide FMRFamide in the regulation of muscle activity in the attachment organs of trematodes and can be considered in perspective for the development of new anthelmintic drugs, which can interrupt the function of the attachment organs of the parasites.

Open access

N. Kumari Gautam, P. Kumar Misra and A. Murari Saxena

Summary

Snakehead fishes are widely consumed throughout South East Asia, China and India because of their good taste of meat and high nutrient values such as presence of prostaglandins, thromboxane and Omega-6 fatty acid. Parasitic infection constitutes significant economic loss in fish production. The aim of this work was to study the seasonal variation of helminths in snakeheads. In the presented study, a three-year survey has been performed. A total of 1013 individuals of Channa punctatus and 247 individuals of Channa striatus were examined. A total of 3783 helminths were collected, with an average of 3.02 helminths/fish. 43.50 % individuals of C. punctatus and 59.10 % of C. striatus were found to be infected with acanthocephalans, trematodes, nematodes and cestodes per year. The prevalence and mean abundance of Pallisentis sp. was at its peak in summer. However the prevalence of trematodes, nematodes and cestodes was at peak during autumn. Mean abundance of nematodes was at peak in summer. Interestingly, the males were found more infected as compared to the females and the infection rate in males peaked in summer. In comparison to other weight groups, medium size hosts (21 – 40 g) were found more consistently infected. Thus the results indicate that there are seasonal variations in parasitic helminths infecting C. punctatus and C. striatus which also depend upon sex and weight. These variations may be attributed to various environmental and biological factors including parasite life cycle and immune level of host.

Open access

O. Bjelić Čabrilo, V. Simin, M. Miljević, B. Čabrilo, D. Mijatović and D. Lalošević

Summary

As part of routine monitoring of foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and jackals (Canis aureus) on the territory of Vojvodina province (northern Serbia), an analysis of respiratory and cardiopulmonary parasitic nematodes was conducted. Both host species harbored Eucoleus aerophilus, E. boehmi and Crenosoma vulpis, whereas Angiostrongylus vasorum was found only in foxes. A high prevalence of infection (72.6 %) was noted for E. aerophilus in foxes. The remaining parasite species occurred less frequently in both host species. In all species where it could be quantified, a high degree of parasite aggregation within host individuals was noted. Single species infections were most common, whereas two and three species infections occurred less frequently in both host species. The distribution of abundance of E. aerophilus was affected by host sex, with abundances higher in male foxes. Sampling site and year influenced abundance variation in E. boehmi.

Open access

Alena Pechová and Andrea Nečasová

Abstract

Ketosis is still an important problem which must be solved in dairy herds. Early precise diagnosis and proper evaluation of the cause of the disease is essential for good management of ketosis on dairy farms. The aim of our work was to analyse the occurrence of rumen dysfunction in connection with subclinical ketosis in dairy herds and to evaluate the relationships between beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration in blood and metabolic parameters in blood, urine and rumen fluid. We analysed the results of metabolic profile tests performed in dairy cattle herds from 1,338 cows. The concentration of BHB significantly correlate with glucose, NEFA (nonesterified fatty acids), bilirubin, AST (aspartate aminotransferase), GGT (γ -glutamyl transferase), urea, magnesium and calcium in blood serum and with following parameters of rumen fluid - acetate, propionate, butyrate, acetate/propionate and infusoria. Significant but weak correlations were found between BHB and urine parameters (pH, specific gravity, potassium, magnesium, chloride). Subclinical ruminal acidosis was found in 23.1% and 16.7% of dairy cows with light (BHB 1.2 - 2 mmol/L) and more severe subclinical ketosis (BHB >2 mmol/L) and simple ruminal indigestion in 16.7% and 30% respectively. On the basis of performed analysis we can conclude that rumen dysfunction is an important factor for the development of ketosis. Veterinary practitioners should imply checking the feeding management in their diagnostic work with the aim to distinguish primary and secondary ketosis. Only complex and precise diagnostic work allows to apply correct and successful therapy not only for individual animals but also for herd health management.

Open access

M. Chunchukova and D. Kirin

Summary

Species diversity and composition of the parasite communities of barbel (Barbus barbus) at the infracommunity and component community levels were studied in the Lower Danube River, Bulgaria. During the two-year investigations, five parasite species have been found in 92 host fish: Bathybothrium rectangulum (Cestoda), Acanthocephalus anguillae and Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala) and larval stages of Contracaecum sp. and Raphidascaris acus (Nematoda). Bathybothrium rectangulum and R. acus found in barbel represented new host records in Bulgaria. Parasite communities of barbel were species-poor and highly unbalanced. Pomphorhynchus laevis represented the dominant (core) species (prevalence 98.9 %), the second most frequent component parasite was Contracaecum sp. (P = 14.1 %) and remaining three species occurred only accidentally in barbels. Differences in species richness, prevalence, intensity of infection and ecological indices between individual seasons (spring, summer, autumn) were statistically significant, but considerably affected by unequal species structure of communities with highly prevailing P. laevis. Low parasite species diversity of barbel and low values of most ecological indices, when compared with previous studies in this area (or other Bulgarian parts of the River Danube) might indicate that environmental conditions are impaired and thus, not favourable for the development of barbel parasites (primarily to their intermediate host survival) in the Lower Danube River of Bulgaria.

Open access

C. Han, J. Xu, Ch. Liu, X. Li, P. Zhai, A. Hashan and M. Song

Summary

Parasitic helminthes can suppress and/or regulate the host immune response to allow long-term survival and chronic infection where toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed on macrophages play essential roles in response to parasitic infection. Semi-quantitative PCR and flow cytometry studies about the modulation of TLRs and cytokine profiles in macrophages following T. spiralis infection were performed. TLRs, MyD88 and NF-κB were up-regulated by T. spiralis infection and essential to the parasite life cycles. Cytokines profiles (IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α) were modulated during T. spiralis infection. Results suggest that T. spiralis infection may regulate the expression of TLR4 on macrophages and TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathways. This study provides further insights into the mechanisms of TLR-mediated post-inflammatory response during T. spiralis infection.

Open access

Saied Jafari, Mahdi Ebrahimi, Yong M. Goh, Mohamed A. Rajion, Mohamed F. Jahromi and Wisam S. Al-Jumaili

Abstract

A wide range of plant secondary metabolites (PSM) have been shown to have the potential to modulate the fermentation process in the rumen. The use of plants and plant extracts as natural feed additives has become an interesting topic not only among nutritionists but also other scientists. Although a large number of phytochemicals (e.g. saponins, tannins and essential oils) have recently been investigated for their methane (CH4) reduction potential, there have not yet been major breakthroughs that could be applied in practice. However, the effectiveness of these PSM depends on the source, type and the level of their presence in plant products. The aim of the present review was to assess ruminal CH4 emission through a comparison of integrating related studies from published papers, which described various levels of different PSM sources being added to ruminant feed. Apart from CH4, other related rumen fermentation parameters were also included in this review.

Open access

B. Čabrilo, V. M. Jovanović, O. Bjelić Čabrilo, I. Budinski, J. Blagojević and M. Vujošević

Summary

Fifty-one yellow-necked mice from the Obedska bara locality were analysed for the presence of intestinal nematode parasites in order to assert whether there was a host sex bias in infection. Previous research indicated that males would be the more infected sex, either due to the immunosuppressive effect of testosterone or their different allocation of resources towards immune defence. Quantitative infection parameters were compared between host sexes for all nematode species and nematodes in general. In addition, the influence of host sex, age, total body length, body mass and presence of other nematode species on parasite abundance was analysed. No statistically significant differences between males and females were noted for any of the studied quantitative parameters, leading to an absence of sex-biased parasitism in this study.

Open access

Anna Czech, Martyna Kiesz, Adrian Kiesz, Tomasz Próchniak, Paweł Różański and Kamila Klimiuk

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to determine whether the type of use, age and gender of Malopolski horses affect the level of selected haematological and biochemical parameters of their blood and whether there is an interaction between these factors. The research was carried out on 30 horses of the Malopolski breed, which were divided according to gender (18 mares and 12 stallions), age (2-6 years, 7-9 years and 10-16 years) and use (recreational vs. sport). To sum up, the gender of horses significantly affects erythrocyte indices, as evidenced by their significantly higher values in the stallions as compared to the mares, as well as by the interactions between gender and type of use and between the gender and age of the horse. The leukocyte and neutrophil counts increase with the age of horses, and the interaction between age and type of use indicates that the leukocyte and neutrophil counts in training horses is closely linked to their age. Systematic physical exercise in sport horses increases leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and contributes to osteogenesis (increase in ALP activity and plasma content of calcium and phosphorus), which has a beneficial effect on their health. The correlations obtained may improve breeders’ awareness of the effect of various factors, such as age, gender or type of use, on blood indices in horses and can be helpful in evaluating the health of Malopolski horses.