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Abstract

Background

The quadriceps tendon is a promising alternative graft choice for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Morphology of the graft directly affects the biomechanical properties. However, a few studies are evaluating the anatomical structures of quadriceps tendon as a graft in Asian population.

Objective

To define the anatomical structures of quadriceps tendon as a graft for ACL reconstruction.

Methods

Forty-nine quadriceps tendons were dissected and analyzed. Measurements were also done including length, width, and thickness.

Results

The maximum length of superficial quadriceps tendon was 63.2 ± 12.5 mm (range 37.6–83.4). The maximum length of tendon at the deepest part was 57.2 ± 11.5 (range 30.9–83.4). The maximum length of quadriceps tendon was located at 61.4% ± 13% (range 31.8–83.6) from medial edge of the patella insertion (approximately 5 mm lateral from the center of quadriceps tendon insertion). The width of quadriceps tendon at patella insertion was 42.4 ± 3.8 mm (range 33.8–50.5). The thickness of quadriceps tendon at its maximum length on patella insertion was 6.9 ± 2.0 mm (range 1.5–9.5). Positive correlation between the height of cadaver and the maximum length of quadriceps tendon was noted.

Conclusions

The maximum length of quadriceps tendon was located 5 mm lateral from the center of quadriceps tendon insertion. Thus, we recommend marking midline of the quadriceps tendon insertion as a medial border of the harvested graft to get maximum length of the graft. Graft length measurement using superficial anatomy should be cautioned because graft shortening might occur.

Abstract

Background

Trauma is a major cause of death in young adults. The mortality rate is one of the key performance indices of trauma centers.

Objective

To demonstrate a mortality rate, cause of death, and cause of nonpreventable death in a level-1 trauma center in Thailand.

Methods

There was a retrospective study of the death cases from a trauma registry. The number of trauma deaths during the study period was collected to identify the death rate. The causes of death and a death analysis were obtained from the morbidity and mortality.

Results

The death rate was 6.6%. The most common cause of overall death was head injury, and exsanguination was the most common cause of death in the first 24 h. The preventable death rate was 2%, and the most common cause of preventable death was exsanguination.

Conclusions

The mortality rate of trauma patients in Thailand was not higher than that in other countries. The majority of deaths were caused from head injury. Therefore, improvement in injury prevention is needed to decrease the number of deaths.

Abstract

Background

While the assisted reproductive technology (ART) relieves the burden of infertility in many couples, it presents significant public health challenges due to the substantial risk for multiple birth delivery and preterm birth, which are associated with poor maternal and fetal health outcomes. For this reason, it is important to monitor the development and effectiveness of ART services in Thailand.

Objective

To analyze the trends of ART services in Thailand between 2008 and 2014.

Methods

ART clinics in Thailand are required to submit data to the Royal Thai College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists via the National Reporting System. The data from 2008 to 2014 were collected and analyzed.

Results

The number of ART centers was increased from 35 to 47. The total fresh ART cycles were also increased from 3,723 to 6,516. The percentage values of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), in vitro fertilization, gamete intrafallopian transfer, and zygote intrafallopian transfer cycles were changed from 77.87 to 95.59, 21.43 to 4.31, 0.21 to 0.09, and 0.45 to 0.05, respectively. The clinical pregnancy rates were 28.79–33.19, 22.84–51.34, 14.29–42.86, and 0.00–26.67, respectively. The clinical pregnancy rates in fresh vs. frozen-thawed cycles were 31.01–36.33 vs. 31.54–37.34 (P < 0.05). The clinical pregnancy rates in female age <35 vs. 35–39 vs. ≥40 years were 36.97–40.70 vs. 32.74–33.42 vs. 21.08–31.34, respectively (P < 0.001), and the percentage values of multifetal pregnancy rate were 18.75 vs. 13.30 and 13.69, respectively (P < 0.001). There were increasing preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) cycles, with the percentage of the clinical pregnancy rate (25.90–42.63, P < 0.05). The clinical pregnancy rates in medium-sized ART centers (100–300 cycles per year) vs. in small and large centers were 30.79–41.14 vs. 28.01–34.04 and 8.70–40.35, respectively (P < 0.001). Trends of increasing percentage of ART birth rate to total birth rate ratio were 0.24–0.34 (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

There were higher clinical pregnancy rates in frozen-thawed cycles. Higher multifetal pregnancy rate and clinical pregnancy rate were also found in younger females. There were increasing uses of ICSI and PGS. A trend toward increasing ART birth to total birth ratio was observed.

Abstract

Background

Autophagy and ubiquitin–proteasome (UPS) are two main degradation systems for intracellular proteins. They are essential for homeostasis of neurons during normal and pathological conditions, but their changes after nerve injury remain unclear.

Objective

To examine the protein expression of autophagy and UPS in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), including intact and injured sciatic nerves after crush injury in rats.

Methods

Left sciatic nerve crush was done in all Wistar rats and the specimens were removed at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after injury. Expression of the autophagic (Beclin-1 and p62) and UPS proteins [muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF1) and ubiquitinated proteins] was measured using Western blot analysis.

Results

Expression of p62 was significantly increased in the injured versus intact sciatic nerves on day 1 and day 7 (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). There was a trend toward higher expression of Beclin-1 on the crushed nerve. In the DRG, expression of p62 and Beclin-1 was not significantly different between the two sides. Expression of MuRF1 and ubiquitinated proteins was not significantly different between the left and right DRG. The low quantity of MuRF1 and high variations in the ubiquitinated protein levels in the nerve prevented further analysis.

Conclusions

These results indicated the induction of autophagy with accumulation of autophagosomes in the nerve, but not DRG, after nerve injury. Future studies on the effects of the autophagic changes and the precise activity of UPS in nerve trauma are crucial.

Abstract

Background

Complications in periodontitis and other systemic infections related to Porphyromonas gingivalis poses a serious impediment in the treatment process. This leads to the search of novel target proteins to develop newer drugs against P. gingivalis. Prolyl tripeptidyl peptidase (ptp-A) seem to be a vital protein in P. gingivalis virulence and can be a good target for the novel natural bioactive compounds.

Objectives

To explore the inhibitory potential of Rosmarinus officinalis biocompounds against the ptp-A of P. gingivalis.

Methods

Three-dimensional structure of ptp-A was retrieved from the Protein Data Bank with further optimization of both the protein and ligands. In silico inhibitory potential of the selected ligands against ptp-A was done by AutoDock 2.0 and was visualized with Biovia discovery studio visualizing tool with the assessment of the molecular properties of the ligands against ptp-A by molinspiration calculations and drug likeliness.

Results

High ptp-A inhibitory effect was observed using rosmarinic acid and luteolin with a bonding energy of −9.81 kcal/mol with 10 hydrogen bond interactions and −9.99 kcal/mol with 7 hydrogen bond interactions, respectively. Carnosic acid and p-coumaric acid showed a binding energy of −7.14 kcal/mol and −6.34 kcal/mol, respectively, with 5 hydrogen bond interactions. Molinspiration assessments showed R. officinalis compounds as the best drug candidates with the topological polar surface area scores <140 Å toward the best oral bioavailability.

Conclusion

The carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid, p-coumaric acid, and luteolin from R. officinalis seem to possess a promising inhibitory effect against ptp-A of Candida albicans suggesting ptp-A as the best target to combat P. gingivalis with further in vivo validation.

Abstract

Introduction

African swine fever (ASF) is a pressing economic problem in a number of Eastern European countries. It has also depleted the Chinese sow population by 50%. Managing the disease relies on culling infected pigs or hunting wild boars as sanitary zone creation. The constraints on the development of an efficient vaccine are mainly the virus’ mechanisms of host immune response evasion. The study aimed to adapt a field ASFV strain to established cell lines and to construct recombinant African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain.

Material and Methods

The host immune response modulation genes A238L, EP402R, and 9GL were deleted using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/caspase 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) mutagenesis system. A representative virus isolate (Pol18/28298/Out111) from Poland was isolated in porcine primary pulmonary alveolar macrophage (PPAM) cells. Adaptation of the virus to a few established cell lines was attempted. The plasmids encoding CRISPR/Cas9 genes along with gRNA complementary to the target sequences were designed, synthesised, and transfected into ASFV-infected PPAM cells.

Results

The reconstituted virus showed similar kinetics of replication in comparison to the parent virus isolate.

Conclusion

Taking into account the usefulness of the developed CRISPR/Cas9 system it has been shown that modification of the A238L, EP402R, and 9GL genes might occur with low frequency, resulting in difficulties in separation of various virus populations.

Abstract

Introduction. The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide in high, low, and middle-income countries such as Indonesia. Obesity rate is higher in females in Indonesia. Obesity has important contribution in the occurrence of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several anthropometric measurements such as waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), body mass (BM), total body fat percentage (Fat%) and visceral fat (VF) are related to IR. This study aimed to investigate which of those measurements could be used as a better predictor of IR in non-menopausal Indonesian adult females.

Methods. Total of 80 non-menopausal Indonesian adult females ranging from 21-40 years were recruited in this study. Insulin resistance was measured by using Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) equation. Subjects with HOMA-IR index >75th percentile with cut-off 2.74 were defined as IR. Waist circumference, BMI and BM were measured, while TF and VF were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).

Results. HOMA-IR had significant correlation with WC (r = 0.563, p<0.001), BMI (r = 0.537, p<0.001), BM (r = 0.515, p<0.001), VF (r = 0.515, p<0.001), Fat% (r = 0.490, p<0.001). The area under curve of VF (0.809), BMI (0.807), WC (0.805), and BM (0.799) are slightly larger than and Fat% (0.766).

Conclusion. Insulin resistance had strong correlation with all anthropometric measurements, but the correlation was less significant with Fat%.

Abstract

The experiments reported in this research paper were aimed at assessing the genetic responses of a Holstein cow population, as a response to the variations in environmental temperature, through the analysis of the effects resulting from the genotype by environment interaction (GEI), based on reaction norms. Therefore, milk production data was collected from the database of the Paraná Holstein Breeders Association in Brazil for 67,360 primiparous cows born between 1990 and 2015, with the purpose of evaluating the temperature effect, considered as an environmental variable, distinguished under six gradients (17 ºC to 19.5 ºC) over the region. A random regression model was adopted, utilizing the fourth order under the Legendre polynomials, applying the mixed models of analysis by the REML method, and using the WOMBAT software. Additionally, the breeding value of the 15 most representative bulls was assessed, in response to the changes in the temperature gradient. The total milk production on average was estimated at 8,412.83 ± 2,012.08 kg. The heritabilities estimates were found in the low to moderate range, from 0.18 to 0.23, displaying a decline with a rise in the temperature, highlighting the influence it exerted on the heritabilities. Variations in the genetic expression of some bulls were noted to show differences of up to 289 kg of milk in response to the increase in the temperature from 17 ºC to 19.5 ºC. However, all the genetic correlations between the gradients for milk yield were above 0.80, in the range of 0.873 to 0.998, revealing no remarkable interaction between the genotype and environment. This result indicates that the application of the temperature variable in the models of genetic analysis in southern Brazil is not required.