David Copperfield shows an advance in Dickens’s treatment of stained women in his earlier works. In this novel he takes the subject inside the closed doors of respectable people to influence their attitudes and to bring a shift in society’s attitude towards them. Dickens’s presentation of stained women is lapped by romantic pathos and supported by a number of devices which aim at securing the sympathy of his readers. In saving them from public retribution, Dickens has turned the bitterest aspect of conventions to a more generous end trying to indicate that it requires sympathy and an ameliorating Christian response, rather than downright condemnation. He supports reformation which leads to rehabilitation and a return to respectability. In his treatment of Emily, Martha Endell, Rosa Dartle and other tarnished women, Dickens could reconcile his charitable inclinations with the imperatives of respectability and could also show the necessity of giving stained women a second chance at home or abroad.
The present study approaches Anna Burns’s novel Milkman (2018) via the lens of Leahy’s Emotional Schema Therapy (EST) (2019) in order to examine the model’s pros and cons for literary analysis. The study focuses on the protagonist’s emotional schemas which are shaped by her beliefs, interpretations and emotional appraisals of her environment. The analysis is carried out on both textual and extra-textual levels. The textual level focuses on character-society relationships and her emotional responses to the demands of her context. The extra-textual level concerns readers and investigates how the protagonist’s emotional appraisals and interpretations influence readers’ emotional schemas, which in the process of reading become either confirmed or restructured. While textual analysis displays the protagonist’s emotional development, the findings of the extra-textual analysis accentuate the therapeutic role that literary texts can play by addressing readers’ emotional schemas.
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes stories involve a hermeneutic game in which Holmes attempts to uncover the mystery of unsolved crime. The work of Hans-Georg Gadamer enables Holmes’s methods to be seen as both playful and creative as he seeks to understand what G. K. Chesterton refers to as the poetry of the modern world. Holmes is therefore a creative and scientific detective, one who loses himself in the game of detection in order to find himself in the search for truth in the wider world. Through the agency of Dr Watson, the reader is invited to join the game and attempt to work out the solution to the mystery as the narrative unfolds before them. Peter Hühn’s work on the detective as reader and writer is extended in relation to the work of understanding and creation carried out by authors who add new works to the genre of Holmesian fiction. This process is explored in the context of two playful writing workshops in which participants passed the opening of a piece of Holmesian fiction they had written to another participant to continue, before sharing the results with the group. Hans Robert Jauss’s ideas about genre and other perspectives on reimagining Holmes help contextualize the strategies used by participants, while Gadamer’s conception of the festive enables insights into the communal processes of creation and understanding.
The paper presents the idea of the chronotope in the novel Far from the Madding Crowd by Thomas Hardy, with special attention paid to idyllic time and space. The research is mainly based on the theory of chronotopes according to Mikhail Bakhtin, who distinguishes various types and motifs within this notion. The author presents here the features of an idyllic chronotope, among them vast descriptions of nature and its connection with human life, as well as the destruction of an idyll, unhappy love and the motif of a road or path, which seems to be one of the most significant motifs in the work. The paper also presents the importance of coincidence and the sudden decisions of characters in the process of constructing the whole story of Gabriel and Bathsheba.
A secret identity is one of the definitional characteristics of comic-book superheroes. However, American popular literature had been populated by characters with secret identities long before the first superhero comics appeared. The crime-fighting dual-identity vigilantes enjoyed their heyday in the 1930s and 1940s, during the golden era of pulps. Selling usually for 10 cents, pulp magazines were the best source of cheap thrills and heroics. In this era, dozens of costumed avengers appeared and the most popular was undoubtedly The Shadow. Between 1931 and 1949, Street and Smith published more than three hundred stories featuring The Shadow, most of them written by Walter B. Gibson. In the late 1930s, several of the pulp conventions, including costumed avengers, were adopted by the creators of the superhero comic books, and The Shadow served as a main inspiration for Bill Finger’s and Bob Kane’s Batman. The article discusses the evolution of crime-fighting pulp heroes with a particular emphasis on The Shadow as the most influential dual-identity avenger of the era.
This study focuses on the verbal representation of life strategies in Vetalapanchavimshati, an old Indian collection of stories, which is part of Somadeva’s Kathasaritsagara. On the basis of the aspect of gain ~ loss, two basic life strategies are identified. The first one, the lower strategy, is defined by an attempt to obtain material gain, which is attained at the cost of a spiritual loss. The second one, the higher strategy, negates the first one (spiritual gain attained at the cost of a material loss) and it is an internally diversified series of axiological models. The core of the study explains the combinatorial variants which, in their highest positions, even transcend the gain ~ loss opposition. The final part of the study demonstrates the intersections between the higher strategy and selected European cultural initiatives (gnosis).
Covert encoding is one of the strategies available to languages for the encoding of motion, in which, in accordance with the laws of Gestalt, the meaning of an expression encoding motion is not coincident with the mere sum of the meanings of each of its constitutive units, relying on the mediation of grammatical and co(n)textestablished knowledge for its interpretability. Moving on from a data set gathered for a previous study and adopting a holistic, constructional approach, several strategies were found in a diachronic corpus of Italian, French and Spanish for the covert encoding of motion in such languages, based on whether the motioninterpretation attributed to the covert construction is mediated by either linguistic or extralinguistic knowledge. The diachronic investigation also showed that the use of such patterns is diachronically consistent in frequency, thus proving that such patterns of interaction between language and cognition may be regarded as functional for speakers of all languages and time stages, also confirming that a holistic, constructional approach to language study can help shed light on linguistic–cognitive phenomena on the basis of language variation and change.