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Mirela Metushaj

Abstract

The aim of this study is to indicate the influence of the role of the Great Powers in the Western Balcans, in this region of contrasts, of many partial, which did not have an easy cohabitation between them, for various reasons, as shown in history from numerous wars. Being in a very interesting part of the western balcans even Albania, my country had its sad history over decades. Western Balcans, despite being geographically distant from many of the great powers, has always attreacted their attention, becoming a battling and disputable terrain by the grat international actors, especially for putting political ideologies that would govern this part of the peninsula. Why does the Weatern Balcans rise so much interest in the international arena?

Open access

Cao Thu Hang

Abstract

Protecting employee rights and interests is the issue attracted attention of related parties in Vietnam. It includes a lot of contents. The article deals with some basic contents such as salary, working time and labor safety and hygiene. In the past years, besides the achievements, the protection of employee rights and interests in Vietnamese enterprises has some limitations. In some enterprises, the minimum wage has not met the demand, the real income of employees is low while working time is relatively high and labor safety and hygiene are not ensured. This is due to many reasons, such as: firstly, most Vietnamese enterprises are small and medium ones, their economic potential is not strong enough to be able to good equipment for employees; secondly, the employees themselves are not aware of their rights and interests as well as are also under pressure to survive; thirdly, it is the problem of profit. Therefore, it is necessary to adjust both the awareness and policies to make sure the harmony between employees, enterprises and society.

Open access

Luqman H. Zainuri

Abstract

Political transition from autocracy to democracy may produce paradoxes. Political succession in Indonesia may be the case in point. The anxiety over massive demonstration, riots and violence often over shadow political successions at the local, regional as well as national level support the above proposition. This article represents a research-based report on one of the most controversial collective violence relates to the monetary crisis 1997-1998 which brought the termination of autocratic era of Soeharto’s regime in May 1998. Since February 1998, in the Regency of Banyuwangi broke out a spiral collective action among the people. Hundreds of local-religious teachers are reportedly to have been killed by an undercover actors called “ninja.” All these phenomena have led to unanswered questions why the massacre against they the Master of Sihir is justified? What do they perceive of the violence? Who did it and how? Who, why and how they do it. As the violence continues almost throughout the year, the report is worth delivering. The aim of this article is to provide a research-based theoretical answers to the question of the nature of violence, the actors, the targets, and modus operandi of the violence. The research was conducted from 2002 to 2005 in the Regency of Banyuwangi and the surrounding areas. The method by which the research was exploratory in kind. Data was collected through snow balling technique while the perspective of the analysis is political sociology. The result shows hundreds of villagers have become victims of the violence most of whom, are village dwellers who are alleged the Master of Sihir. Most of the actors of the violence, if not all, are neighbours who share the believe that magic is benevolent while at the same time is malevolent. Accordingly, they perceive of those who were named the Master of Sihir paradoxically as foe and friend at the sane time. The violence vary degree starting from destruction of house or property, social isolation, expel from the village, and assassination. In conclusion, the chaotic political transition has given a room for the society to produce and reproduce violence. People may say that any violence is against human rights but, for this people, not to the Master of Sihir. For them, violation against the Master of Sihir is socially and politically justified, fair and acceptable.

Open access

Rachel Reckinger and Christian Wille

Abstract

Given the current call for interdisciplinarity, we reflect on pragmatic methodological implementations of collaborative research – by drawing on empirical evidence from two large-scale cross-disciplinary research projects and by theoretically framing them in trilingual contexts (German, French, and English). These are two major innovations compared to the existing body of literature in this domain. Our empirical analysis shows that multi-, inter- or trans-disciplinary collaboration is an oscillating process along a spectrum of cross-disciplinarity – spanning additive, converging and synthesizing work patterns, i.e. multi-, inter-, and transdisciplinarity. Such an umbrella-term avoids the common amalgamation of ‘interdisciplinarity’ as the overarching category (cross-disciplinarity of whatever form) and one of the relevant subcategories (the specific work form that a research team chooses). Concretely, if the majority of methods are developed through communal negotiation processes, then a truly interdisciplinary analysis of research results can only be guaranteed through recursive self-reflexive loops. Initial research questions may still be additive and interactions can oscillate during the project process between addition und tentative convergence. We label this process situative interdisciplinarity. Multi-, inter- and transdisciplinarity are thus subsumed as a processual entity: flexible, possibly hybrid subforms of cross-disciplinarity. It needs constant reactivation, framing, timing and mediation by project managers. The major challenge lies in the collaborative transfer of concepts, theories, methods and research subjects. This transfer requires translation, explication and transposition of the various disciplinary ‘languages’ and can only be converged in an open-minded, team-oriented and reflexive work environment.

Open access

Eneida Përmeti Çifligu

Abstract

The purpose of this study is the relationship between public debt and economic growth in Albania in post-dictatorships. Many authors have analyzed the mutual link between economic growth and public debt and the results and the methodologies are different in different countries and periods. Let’s see what data are specifically about these two indicators (provided by the Ministry of Finance, the Bank of Albania and the International Monetary Fund). Does the public debt performance affects the trend of the economic growth or not? I have mentioned what are the main events and phenomena in Albania, in Europe and in the World that have affected the Albanian economy. For these years, I have made comparisons with situations in other countries.

Open access

Georgios C. Baltos, Filippa S. Chomata and Ioannis G. Vidakis

Abstract

This paper describes how the standardization essentially, rather than referring to goals, outputs and outcomes, addresses duties, roles and actions, while eventually the latter ones affect and empower the former. The quest for quality is still on-going in pursuit of effectiveness and efficiency combined with social responsibility, as long as it is dependent upon societies’ willingness to change the world and share a better future. Although organizations have a long way to walk toward synergism and integration, quality management is being transformed from compliance to collaboration driven. The wide range of standards implementing the quality management systems based on ISO 9001 materializes its strategic direction to be functionally adapted to specific sectors and industries. On the other hand, plenty of later standards deal with the additional requirements that are applicable only to specific industries. They surely carry pros and cons. There is, however, a threatening likelihood that the relevant markets would reject some of the standards in case multiple standards overlap each other, creating complex bureaucratic burdens. Health and Safety standards are a success story against such concerns, while a plethora of Control and Risk management standards compete each other, which may be perceived more as a source of creativity rather than confusion.

Open access

Andrew Onwuemele

Abstract

Flood risks are considered as one of the most devastating natural disasters. Presently, flooding occurs in all the ecological zones in Nigeria which has been linked to global warming. In Lagos Megacity, the incidence of flooding is now a reoccurring decimal which is only an indication of the failure of the existing mechanism for flood risk reduction. Knowledge of public perception of flood risk is considered a crucial element for a proactive preparedness for flood risk reduction. This study is aimed at gaining insight into the public perception of flood risks for proactive flood risks preparedness among residents in flood prone areas in Lagos megacity, Nigeria. The survey research design was utilized. Data were collected by questionnaire from residents of flood prone neighbourhoods in the city. The results show high awareness of flood risks among respondents that have experienced flooding previously than respondents that have not experienced flooding in the past. It also reveals poor preparedness among respondents that have not experienced flooding. The paper calls for public awareness creation among residents in flood prone areas of the city as a strategy to promote preparedness for flood disaster risks reduction in the city.

Open access

Nguyen Thi Mai Hong and Vu Hong Nhung

Abstract

The article presents the reality of Poverty Reduction work at Bavi commune, Bavi district, Hanoi city, Vietnam today, obtained results, difficulties, drawbacks and its causes, then, the article claims the essential role and specific strengths of social workers majoring in poverty reduction to enhance the effectiveness of poverty reduction on the basis of sustainable development goals today.

Open access

Alqi Naqellari

Abstract

This paper analyzes Internal Aggregate Demand. This aggregate, along with other production indicators, is the main indicator of the country’s economic performance rate. Objective analysis is important for their perspective, as well as for a set of other related indicators, such as inflation rate, unemployment rate, etc. In economic theory, the Aggregate Demand Curve (AD) deals with negative slope. At the point where AD interrupts the AS (aggregate supply curve) there is macroeconomic equilibrium. Creating this equilibrium, shifting curves, creates a number of other figures that show how the level of output, prices and employment will be, and overall the level of economy in the future. In this study, with the data of the Albanian economy, was built, for a period of 17 years, the Internal Demand Curve. Three effects are analyzed: the real balance sheet effect, the interest rates and the external trade effect. The internal demand curve has resulted in a Positive Slope. The equilibrium is not created at the intersection point of the curves. These curves stand facing each other. The equilibrium is set by the different aggregate price level. The Gross Domestic Product Curve (GDP) is the equilibrium curve created by the interaction of Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply. This position is real, and creates opportunities for objective analysis of the economy. This paper uses econometric, statistical, comparative and synthesis methods.

Open access

Jani Sota

Abstract

This is now a well known axiom, that to judge the level of emancipation of a particular society, one should know the extent of her education. Because of the system’s nature, Albanian and foreign historiography has not been tackling a lot with the problems of higher education after 1990, seeing it from the perspective of the interests of the Albanian democratic state anyway, in terms of the transition, although with difficulties, efforts to change were not interrupted. The transition from totalitarianism to pluralist democracy and a free market economy also raised the issue of a radical change in the education field, a radical restructure, a radical democratic reform throughout work and life. Everything that happened after this period, especially in higher education, destroyed the “foundations” of the traditional high school influence by marxism-leninism, paving the way to new decentralized changes to achieve the highest quality indicators, through the step by step perfection of the university documentation, and efforts for the preparation of specialists, who are able to have direct access in manufacturing as well. The transformation of higher education began when our country was undergoing the transition period. In this study we will focus on the general analysis of the efforts of the Albanian government in front of incomplete standards in the higher educational system, reorganization of the school, in the framework of the change of the political system and the tranformation of socio-economic in Albania. Then it will be elaborated the intensity of changes and the results that are obviously noticed from one stage to the other, also some aspects of the reorganization process and the consolidation of higher education.