The study explores which languages are predominant in the online use among the targeted participant population in Croatia and Slovenia and examines the association between the participants’ smartphone online use of English and preferred subtitling mode with their perceived communicative competence in English. The findings indicate that in both nationality groups the use of English prevails in receptive language activities, in particular listening and audio-visual reception, while mother tongues are mainly used for productive and interactive activities. Participants who prefer English when engaging in online informal activities through their smartphones and who use English or no subtitles when watching video content also assess their competence in English to be on higher levels.
The aim of this paper was to study gender differences in topic choice selection using the corpus of speeches given in the 113th United States Congress. We also looked at whether there are topic choice selection differences with respect to party affiliation and chamber, and finally, whether conversational topics chosen by male and female politicians correlate with any other category we measured in our corpus. The corpus was composed of 672 speeches by the female and 2,983 speeches by the male politicians. The speech transcripts were downloaded from the official repository Thomas and analyzed using the text analysis software Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) to identify the use of vocabulary related to seven conversational topics recorded by LIWC. The data was analyzed both quantitatively, using statistical analysis, and qualitatively, to determine if there are significant gender differences in speech topic selection. The analyses showed that there are overall gender and affiliation differences in topic selection by the male and female politicians in the 113th Congress, some confirming the trend of long-standing prevalence of home-related references in women’s speeches, and death and religion references in men’s speeches, others marking a social shift for some of the categories compared to previous studies on the topic, such as the increasing share of references to work, money achievement in women’s speeches, as well as women’s preference for security, and men’s preference for competitiveness, as signaled by their lexical choices. Further correlation test results recorded subtler differences which pointed to linguistic changes in stereotypization, such as women signaling less emotion and choosing more formal ways of expression.
This paper aimed to investigate metaphorical images used by master’s students in order to gain an insight into their schemata for thinking about the process of master’s thesis writing. Semistructured interviews on the topic of master’s thesis writing with three students coming from humanities, social sciences and natural sciences served as a corpus from which the data were extracted. The paper analysed participants’ unconscious use of metaphorical language in their narratives, mirroring their perception of the thesis writing process. The results revealed that the participants’ personal experience revolves around the concept of journey as the central image they share and the journey metaphor, along with a group of related specific metaphors, serves to illustrate the complexity of the writing process itself.
This study offers a collocate analysis of the modal marker no doubt (ND) in the EEBO, ECCO and EVANS combined corpora using Sketch Engine. The purpose is to determine the diachronic patterns of usage of ND, and secondly to compare results with the conclusions of existing diachronic pragmatic studies of modal markers. The first step identified five patterns of behaviour based on AM score in decreasing order of frequency: 1 – NDB (no doubt but); 2 – TISND (there is no doubt); 3 – MND (make no doubt); 4 – (ND (parenthetical use); 5 – Ndont (no doubt on’t). The second step consisting in partitioning of the corpus following Hilpert and Gries (2016) produced 3 distinct periods based on EHBO data (1580-1669, 1670-1759, 1760-1799). The findings showed that the relative usage of ND for each period remained remarkably consistent, especially the persistence of non-grammaticalized behaviours MND and TISN. The two major disparities, concerning NDont and parenthetical (ND, were shown to be of likely significance for the changing pragmatic behaviour of ND, which further diachronic study may be able to ascertain.
With the advent of the global perspective on English, the live issues of the ownership and culture of English (; ) have begun to shake up numerous conventional notions of the field. In the wake of this landmark shift, this study attempts to probe EFL teachers’ cultural attitude toward prospective English words. To this end, identifying twelve highly Persian culture-specific words, the researchers devised an attitude questionnaire, which was administered to 351 EFL teachers to examine their right of cultural encoding () as English users. The study concludes with granting a legitimate norm-overriding role to EFL teachers in order to gate-keep their required concepts in English.
The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate boredom among Croatian primary and secondary school teachers of English. The data was gathered by means of an open-ended survey that focused on the teachers’ experiences with classroom boredom. The findings pointed to different causes of boredom in the Croatian FLT context, such as grammar tasks and uninteresting subject matter. Croatian teachers reported various manifestations of boredom, i.e. cognitive and motivational, as well as diverse emotion regulation strategies employed, such as introducing new content or engaging in physical activity. Majority of the teachers stated that boredom did not affect their instructional quality, however there were those who reported having observed adverse effects in their classrooms.
Studies have shown that second language (L2) motivation can have an impact on L2 learning processes. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in L2 motivation among Croatian university students from the perspective of the L2MSS. The results indicated that females were more motivated than males to learn English, had higher levels of interest in English, while differences in L2 anxiety were somewhat ambiguous. Females also demonstrated that their L2 motivation was linked to motives related to the avoidance of negative outcomes suggesting that females are perhaps more conscientious learners compared to males. These findings point to a complex motivational state among females, which may indicate important gender-based differences in language learning.
As the constituents of thoughts, concepts play a key role in human’s categorisation and interpretation of the surrounding world, in fixing our cognitive experience and forming individual judgements. The paper considers the representation of the nationally biased (ethno-specific) concept maidan as one of those functioning not only in Ukrainian but also in pan-European and global socio-political discourses of the recent years. Specifically, leaning on lexicographic data the study focuses on reconstructing the notional layer (informative core) of the concept and on identifying the differences of its content as featured in kin Slavic (Ukrainian and Russian) and distant Germanic (English and German) languages and linguocultures. The paper suggests a consecutive methodology based on lexicographic methods of analysis. Such methodology helps to define the sets of notional conceptual features subjected to further comparative interpretation. The procedures described in this paper give way to subsequent stages of conceptual analysis and discourse representations. The paper also provides preliminaries to the state of inconsistency between the systemic and utterance meanings of the language expressions of MAIDAN-concept that pose a limitation for comprehending the concept when transmitted to a different linguoculture
Current understanding of second language acquisition processes is based on the position that second language learners rely and depend on their L1 as well as on all of their language-related experience. This paper presents results of a questionnaire study aimed to explore Croatian EFL instructors’ beliefs about the role of L1 in English language development and formal instruction. Data was further analysed in order to explore variables most likely to impact instructors’ belief systems (participants’ age and academic degree, students’ language level, learning setting). The findings point to a lack of professional consensus with regard to L1 use which is discussed and followed by practical implications.
This study examined the syntactic and semantic complexity of L2 English writing in a Bosnian-Herzegovinian high school. Forty texts written by individual students, ten per grade, were quantitatively analyzed by applying methods established in previous research. The syntactic portion of the analysis, based on the t-unit analysis introduced by , was done using the Web-based L2 Syntactic Complexity Analyzer (), while the semantic portion, largely based on the theory laid out in systemic functional linguistics (), was done using the Web-based Lexical Complexity Analyzer () as well as manual identification of grammatical metaphors. The statistical analysis included tests of variance, correlation, and effect size. It was found that the syntactic and semantic complexity of writing increases in later grades; however, this increase is not consistent across all grades.