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Mapping Indicators of Cultural Ecosystem Services: Review and Relevance to Urban Context

Abstract

Over decades human well-being has recognized from ecosystems, not only through material goods but also through nonmaterial assets namely cultural ecosystem services (CES). Regardless of increasing Ecosystem Services (ES) research over the last decade, cultural services assessment still remains neglected and is mainly limited to marketable services such as recreation and ecotourism. Obvious challenges in standardizing definitions and measurement units have brought about numerous difficulties in accounting cultural services and specific related indicators in decision-making processes. In that regard, the current review intends to create a reference list of CES categories and related measurement units with commonly used indicators. To put it another way, we analysis 80 publications to identify the most common CES indicators using in mapping various categories of CES approaches. Results prove that there are various methods can be used in assessing CES categories, whereas we found 57 indicators can be used for that and most of these indicators can be utilized in urban planning context as spatial indicators. Moreover, it is obvious that almost the same indicators can be used in evaluating most CES categories. For instance, in case of recreation and tourism indicators almost 50 % of all collected indicators can be used for mapping it, on the contrary, in case of spiritual and religious values. In conclusion, while there are various mapping methods of CES and different indicators, most of CES categories have relatively ignored by the planner and decision-makers such as education and inspirational values. Therefore, we recommend the use of the collected indicators and relevant measurement units in assessing neglected values in future research.

Open access
Mapping Kabul’s Private Urban Green Spaces Using Geographic Information System-Supervised Classification
Open access
A New Regulation for Supporting a Circular Economy in the Plastic Industry: The Case of Peru (Short Communication)

Abstract

The present study shows the regulatory proposal related to plastic by the Peruvian government and also, the previous initiatives are described so that it can be taken as a reference for the successful implementation in other countries, taking into account the regulatory and business aspects at the same time.

Open access
The Role of Customary Law in the Forest Preservation in Bali

Abstract

The endeavors to preserve the forest in Bali cannot be isolated from the existence of local wisdom. Customary law, as a decision of Hindu religious leaders in Bali, is one of the local wisdoms which has been maintained by the society. This study examined the values of local wisdom held by indigenous people and reviewed the preservation of forests from a Hindu perspective. This research was conducted in three villages in Bali, namely Tenganan Village, Manggis Sari Village, and Sangeh Village. The residents of these villages believed that forest is a sacred area which must be maintained and preserved properly.

Open access
Arable Land Abandonment in the Czech Villages of Romanian Banat Area and Plant Diversity in Old-Fields

Abstract

The aim of this study is to differentiate old-field plant communities along the abandonment time and/or environmental gradient in the landscape surrounded villages with established Czech settlers in Romanian Banat area conserving traditional agriculture, and to identify site factors which cause plant diversity of particular vegetation types. Study area: Wider territory centered by the village Sfânta Elena, southern Romania ((44°40’ N; 21°43’ E). Methods: We collected 97 phytosociological relevés covered the same number of old-fields in the area and the following habitat parameters were measured: soil pH, available phosphorus, total carbon and nitrogen, Heat Load Index. Software TURBOVEG / JUICE was used to collect and elaborate the data set of relevés. Old-field vegetation was classified into five basic plant communities using TWINSPAN (all the botanical material includes 291 plant species). For each community, we detected diagnostic species according to their fidelity index. The presence of mowing, grazing or burning was registered for recorded stands. Ecological preferences of each community were examined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Vegetation-environment relationships were analysed using ordination method – Cannonical correspondence analysis (CCA) in CANOCO for Windows (version 4.5) to find the main variability gradients within the dataset. Scatter plot relationships between variables were constructed. Main results and conclusions: Dependence of number of species (alpha diversity) on the abandoned field’s age exhibits an unimodal shape of this relationship with the maximum peak of species diversity in plant stands aged approximately 13 years. The most importnat ecological factors and/or type of management in the relationship to the old-field plant composition show the following significance order: available phosphorus content in the soil (P), total nitrogen content in the soil (N), presence of burning, length of abandonment (old-field age), carbon/nitrogen ratio in the soil (C/N). Other parameters (grazing, mowing, zero management) do not demonstrate effective impact according to our dataset and seem to be equal to the absence of burning.

Open access
Breeding Biology of Booted Eagle Hieraaetus Pennatus (Gmelin, Jf, 1788): The First Study in North Africa

Abstract

Knowledge and study of breeding birds’ biology is essential to understand the dynamic, assess productivity and identify threats. The population of booted eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus) was studied during three consecutive breeding seasons (2013−2015) in the Chettabah forest. Each year, arrivals of Booted eagles are recorded during March (15 individuals in 2013, 12 in 2014 and 11 in 2015). For the three years of study, the mean breeding pair’s density was 1.23 ± 0.153/km2, incubation period ranged from 33 to 38 days, whilst the frequency distribution of clutch size was 67.6% for 2 eggs, 27% for 1 and 5.4% for 3. Amongst the 63 eggs monitored, 55 hatched. No significant variation in hatching rate was observed during the 3 years (90% in 2013, 76.19% in 2014 and 84% in 2015). The comparison of breeding parameters with those reported in Spain showed a noticeable similarity. Further investigations should be conducted to improve the provision of information to support sound management interventions of this North African population.

Open access
Changes in Snowbed Vegetation in the Western Carpathians Under Changing Climatic Conditions and Land Use in the Last Decades

Abstract

Snowbed vegetation is one of the most sensitive alpine vegetation type to the climate change, because shortened period of snow cover has essential impact on the snowbed environment. We focus on its changes in the Western Tatras, which is a part of the Western Carpathians (Slovakia). The assessment of changes in snowbed vegetation is based on the method of pair comparison. In 2016–2018, we resampled 21 historical phytocoenological relevés of Festucion picturatae and Salicion herbaceae alliances from 1974 and 1976. Historical data include 45 species, while recent data include 50 species. We observed a decrease in the frequency of species characteristic for snowbeds and, on the other hand, an increase in that for strong competitors, especially grasses and small shrubs from adjacent habitats. According to Ellenberg’s ecological indices, there is some increase in temperature and decrease in light ecological factors in snowbed habitats. In S. herbaceae data, a statistically significant increase in the average species number was observed with new species that penetrated from the adjacent habitats. Changes in species composition between historical and recent data are confirmed by Non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) ordination diagram. Linear mixed-effect models showed big variability in factors that have impact on phytodiversity; nevertheless, temperature is the most significant factor.

Open access
Effects of the implementation of a progressive tariffs policy on water management in DKI Jakarta, Indonesia

Abstract

The status of the availability of water resources in DKI (Indonesia’s Special Region of) Jakarta has reached a critical phase. Determination of progressive tariffs by the DKI Jakarta Provincial Government in 2007 aimed to encourage water users to use water resources rationally and in a sustainable way. However, since the launch of the policy, there has been no evaluation to determine the effectiveness of these progressive tariffs. This research analysed empirical data to examine the effect of policy interventions on water use behaviour in DKI Jakarta. An analysis was carried out by calculating water usage before progressive tariffs were applied and comparing them to water use after the tariffs were applied. Another analysis calculated the number of customers before and after the implementation of progressive tariffs and compared the changes. The increase in water prices plotted are stated in nominal value by assuming the average level of inflation in Jakarta (especially the price of water) was nearly under 2 percent and the price of water was not controlled by the market mechanism The results of this study indicate that before progressive tariffs were applied, water consumption had declined despite an increase in the number of customers, however, water consumption increased after the implementation. This shows that progressive tariffs are effective instruments to distribute clean water access through cross-subsidies, however, it has no effect on consumption levels.

Open access
Evaluation of sustainable tourism potential of the principle Giant Mountains resorts in the Czech Republic

Abstract

This paper proposes a new methodology for assessing the potential of sustainable tourism. It examines the overall potential of the landscape when faced with the negative impacts of tourism. Our assessment combines components of tourism and environmental sustainability. The methodology involved consultation with experts, and verification by tourists before being applied to the study area. The methodology was then applied to selected tourism centres in the Giant Mountains. The Giant Mountains are a popular tourist destination thanks to their outstanding natural beauty, and represent significant potential for tourism development. They are also one of the most over-burdened regions from tourism in the Czech Republic. However, many negative impacts of tourism exist, reducing the overall tourism potential of the region. Comparative results from the individual tourist centres in the study reveal the significant impact of potentially reducing attributes. Our assessment of the potential for sustainable tourism development in the area thus combines the environmental aspect of sustainable forms of tourism, with the identification of the most serious threats that need to be avoided to maintain the environment in the long-term. The results reveal the significant impact of excessive and inappropriate infrastructure and housing, as well as insufficient environmental education and legislation.

Open access
Fitting Competing Models of the Population Abundance Distribution: Land Snails from Nikopol Manganese Ore Basin Technosols

Abstract

This paper examines the temporal dynamics of terrestrial mollusks of the Nikopol manganese ore basin technosols. The research was carried out at the Research Centre of the Dnipro Agrarian and Economic University in Pokrov (Ukraine). Sampling was carried out in 2012–2014 on four variants of artificial soil: formed on red-brown clays, on loess-like loams, on gray-green clays, and on humus-rich layer. The distribution of the number of individuals in a mollusk population was described by broken stick, Motomura, log-normal, Zipf, and Zipf-Mandelbrot models. It was shown that the series of models that best describe mollusk abundance distribution is specific for a particular species and technosols type and generally is invariant over time.

Open access