Anna Czech, Eugeniusz Ryszard Grela, Martyna Kiesz and Sylwia Kłys
Animal health and welfare can be assessed using biochemical and haematological markers of the blood. The values of these parameters depend in part on the quantity and quality of feed ingredients, i.e. feed protein and feed additives. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of including fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) in dry feeding system on haematological and biochemical blood parameters of sows and piglets. The experimental material comprised 30 primiparous gilts and 30 multiparous sows after their second lactation. They were randomly divided into two groups of equal size – control and experimental. The animals in control groups CG (15 gilts) and CS (15 sows) received a standard diet for pregnant or lactating sows, depending on the reproductive period. Experimental groups EG and ES were 15 gilts and 15 multiparous sows, respectively, receiving feed with a 4% share of FRSM in place of soybean meal up to 100 d of gestation. In addition, from 100 d of gestation to 7 d of lactation, the sows in these groups received feed with a 9% share of FRSM, and then again a diet with a 4% share of FRSM until the end of lactation. Blood samples were taken from 6 animals from each group in two periods: at 100 days of pregnancy (late pregnancy) and at 27 days of lactation (late lactation). Blood from piglets was taken at 27 days of age (before weaning), from two piglets from each sow (one gilt and one barrow), taking into account the average body weight in the litter. Haematological parameters: Ht, Hb and RBC were determined in whole blood. The plasma content of minerals, activity of selected enzymes and biochemical parameters of sows, gilts and piglets were determined. The diet containing fermented rapeseed meal, fed to pregnant and lactating sows, increased the level of Ht and Hb and RBC content and mineral content (phosphorus, calcium and iron) in the plasma. This effect was mainly observed in primiparous sows. The inclusion of FRSM in the diet of sows reduced the plasma content of total cholesterol and triacylglycerols in sows and piglets, as well as liver enzyme activity, particularly AST in piglets. The use of fermented rapeseed meal in sow diet resulted in better use of mineral compounds, improvement of production effects and health parameters of sow and piglet blood.
Anita Zaworska-Zakrzewska, Małgorzata Kasprowicz-Potocka, Zuzanna Wiśniewska, Andrzej Rutkowski, Marcin Hejdysz, Sebastian Kaczmarek, Nowak Piotr, Anna Zmudzińska and Mirosław Banaszak
The objective of the study was to determine the effect of the introduction of 5% of raw soybean seeds instead of soybean meal on the growth, feed consumption and utilization of growing pigs, also the carcass and pork quality. The growth experiment was conducted on 120 pigs of approx. 18.5 kg allocated to two dietary treatments. The animals from the control treatment (CON) were offered a diet with soybean meal, and the experimental group (EXP) was given 5% raw soybean seeds (NON-GMO, Augusta var.) instead of SBM. The experiment lasted 88 days. After the experiment, eight pigs from each group were euthanized and meat samples were collected. No diet effect on the animals’ performance and carcass quality were observed (P>0.05). The experimental diet affected (P<0.05) meat color, and also meat composition (higher water content and lower intramuscular fat content). The composition of fatty acids in the meat did not differ significantly, except for higher C16:1 content in the EXP group.
The introduction of 5% raw soybean seeds in the diets did not impact animal performance, but it reduced some indices of the pork quality.
Jacek Domagała, Agnieszka Pluta-Kubica, Marek Sady, Genowefa Bonczar, Iwona Duda and Henryk Pustkowiak
The purpose of this research was to compare the physicochemical and sensorial properties of fromage frais-type cheese produced from milk of different cow breeds. There is no information on this topic in literature. The cheeses were manufactured in laboratory conditions during summer in three independent series from milk of the Polish Holstein-Friesian Black-White (HO), Polish Holstein-Friesian Red-White (RW) and Polish Red (RP) cows. The milk, whey and cheeses were analysed for chemical composition and physicochemical properties. Moreover, sensory analysis, TPA, protein fractions by SDS PAGE and fatty acid profile by GC were determined in cheeses. A oneway ANOVA was employed and the significance of differences between the means was established using the Duncan’s test. The cheeses were found to have a similar acidity and basic chemical composition (P ≥ 0.05), with the exception of fat in dry matter concentration, which was greater in RW than HO cheese (P < 0.05). The sensory evaluation of fromage frais-type cheeses revealed that they differed only in smell which gained a better score in RP than HO cheese (P < 0.05). However, texture analysis showed a significant difference in the hardness and chewiness between cheeses which were the greatest in HO cheese (P < 0.05). The RW cheeses were characterised by a greater proportion of whey proteins, trans-vaccenic acid, cis-9,trans-11-linoleic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) than the HO ones. The cheeses from the RP milk gave the greatest yield. In conclusion, the most beneficial raw material for fromage frais-type cheese manufacture is the RW milk.
Francesco Vizzarri, Sara Chiapparini, Carlo Corino, Donato Casamassima, Marisa Palazzo, Vladimir Parkanyi, Lubomir Ondruska and Raffaella Rossi
The present study evaluates the effects of natural extracts on reproductive performance, haematochemical parameters, and antioxidant status of rabbit does. A total of sixty New Zealand White second parity does were divided into three groups: the first group was fed a control diet (CON), the second (T1) and the third groups (T2), were fed the same diet supplemented with prebiotic polysaccharides from brown seaweeds (Laminaria spp.) plus phenolic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, tannins, and flavonoids from plant extracts (0.3% and 0.6%, respectively). The trial was conducted for two consecutive reproductive cycles (75 days). Reproductive performance was recorded. Blood samples were collected before the first insemination, 10 d after the first kindling, and 10 d after the second one. At the first reproductive cycle, productive parameters were negatively affected (P<0.05) by a high dosage of the dietary supplement (T2 group). At the second reproductive cycle, no differences (P>0.05) between dietary treatments on reproductive and productive performances were observed. Bilirubin was affected by dietary treatment (P<0.001) and decreased in relation to sampling time (P<0.001). The HDL cholesterol decreased by dietary treatment (P<0.01). All the plasma antioxidant markers were positively affected (P<0.001) by dietary supplementation and sampling time. No previous study has reported the effects of brown seaweeds and polyphenols on rabbit does and the present data shows that this natural extract supplement improved the antioxidant status of rabbits does.
Shaaban S. Elnesr, Mahmoud Alagawany, Hamada A. M. Elwan, Mohamed A. Fathi and Mayada R. Farag
Health of the intestine is one of the main reasons that affects the bird’s performance, and thus the economic yield in the poultry sector. Various studies have examined how to improve the intestinal health using dietary supplements, including organic acids such as sodium butyrate (SB). The efficacy of the dietary supplementation in poultry is often assessed using an important parameter as intestinal integrity, which often assessed as a measure of high villus height and the ratio of villus height: crypt depth, or count of goblet cell numbers. In broilers, the villus length and width were increased by the addition of dietary SB. Since, at day 21 and 42, the villus length was increased by (55 and 27 %) and (39 and 18 %) for birds fed 0.5 and 1 g/kg, respectively, compared with the control diet. Furthermore, SB plays an important role in development of poultry intestinal epithelium. It can be employed by the intestinal epithelial cells as an energy source to stimulate their differentiation and proliferation, and to improve intestinal barrier function. SB is effective against acid intolerant species such as Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens and E. coli. In addition, use of butyric acid at 0.6% reduced the pH of gastrointestinal segments. For this, SB could potential alternative in maintaining the health of gastrointestinal tract and improving the productive performance of poultry. This review refers to the expanding horizons in the research on SB supplementation in poultry health and nutrition.
Dorota Kowalska, Andrzej Gugołek and Janusz Strychalski
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of feeding rabbits with diets containing dried silkworm pupae and mealworm larvae meals on their slaughter value and meat quality. A total of 60 New Zealand White rabbits at 35 days of age were divided into 3 equivalent groups. Control group (C) and two experimental diets included either 4% silkworm pupae meal (diet A) and 4% mealworm larvae meal (diet B). The experiment lasted for 55 days and growth performance as well chemical and amino acid meat composition and the profile of fatty acids were evaluated during the study. The results showed that dietary supplementation of insect meals caused increases in final body weight and carcass meat content in rabbits from the experimental groups. The experimental diets had no effect on the sum of essential amino acids in the studied muscles, but created differences in the level of some amino acids: phenylalanine, lysine, tryptophan, threonine, isoleucine and methionine. The concentration of saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the muscles was comparable in all the groups. In the tissues of rabbits fed the silkworm meal diet, PUFA-3 concentration increased and cholesterol level decreased. It is concluded that dried silkworm pupae and mealworm larvae meals can be use as feed material in rabbits diets at 4% inclusion level without any adverse effect on growth performance, as well as quality and dietetic value of rabbit meat.
Władysław Migdał, Marian Różycki, Aurelia Mucha, Mirosław Tyra, Małgorzata Natonek-Wiśniewska, Maria Walczycka, Piotr Kulawik, Ewelina Węsierska, Marzena Zając, Joanna Tkaczewska, Łukasz Migdał and Katarzyna Krępa-Stefanik
The chemical composition and culinary meat tenderness belong to the most important characteristics determining meat quality and value.. The aim of this work was to compare texture profiles and shear force of pork loin (m. longissimus dorsi) and of pork ham (m. semimembranosus) fatteners of Polish Landrace (PL), Polish Large White (PLW), Duroc, Pietrain and Pulawska pig breeds slaughtered at 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 day of breeding. Meat was roasted at 180°C to inner temperature of 78°C. The intramuscular – fat (IMF) content in loin was growing with fattener age (from 1.17% at 60 day to 1.84% at 180 day of life). Between breeds IMF was ranging from 0.82% in PLW to 2.29% in Pulawska breed. The shear force for loin muscle was ranging from 3.42 kG/cm2 at 60 day to 6.54 kG/cm2 at 210 day of fattener life while for and ham muscle 4.4 kG/cm2 at 60 day to 6.78 kG/cm2 at 210 day of fattener life. The hardness (TPA) was ranging from 72,29 N at 90 day of life to 109,46 N at 210 day of sow fatteners. The shear force of loin and ham meat was increasing with age of fatteners and some texture parameters – hardness and chewiness. Nevertheless it seems that the age of 150 days is the time when meat of fatteners is characterised by the highest technological properties. However, the final decision regarding slaughter age should be made taking into account the technological destination of the carcasses. No significant interactions between the animal breed and their age were found for the parameters analyzed.
Nawab Ali, Sadaf Niaz, Naimat Ullah Khan, Ali Gohar, Irfan Khattak, Yixin Dong, Tariq Khattak, Iftikhar Ahmad, Yachun Wang and Tahir Usman
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the JAK2 gene on the production and mastitis related traits in dairy cattle. Blood and milk samples were collected from 201 lactating dairy cattle of three breeds i.e. Holstein Friesian (HF), Jersey (J) and Achai (A) and their crosses maintained at well-established dairy farms in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Generalized linear model was used to evaluate the association between genotypes and the studied traits. A DNA pool was made from randomly selected 30 samples which revealed three SNPs i.e. SNP 1 in 5/ upstream region (G>A, rs379754157), SNP 2 in intron 15 (A>G, rs134192265), and SNP 3 in exon 20 (A>G, rs110298451) that were further validated in the population under study using SNaPshot technique. Of the three SNPs, SNP 1 did not obey Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P<0.05). SNP 2 and SNP 3 were found to be in strong linkage disequilibrium and allele G was highly prevalent compare to allele A in these SNPs. In SNP 1, the GG genotype was associated with significantly (P ≤ 0.01) higher SCC whereas, SNP 2 and SNP 3 were significantly (P ≤ 0.01) associated with higher lactose percentage compared to the other genotypes. The haplogroups association analysis revealed that H1H2 (GG GG AG) has significantly lower SCC than H2H2 (GG GG GG). The results infer that JAK2 could be an important candidate gene and the studied SNPs might be useful genetic markers for production and mastitis related traits.
Harry A. Aguzey, Zhenhua Gao, Wu Haohao, Cheng Guilan, Wu Zhengmin, Chen Junhong and Niu Zhi Li
The effect of dietary arginine on disease prevention, immune system modulation, the gut microbiota composition and growth of broiler chicken was reviewed. The main aim of poultry production is the maximization of profit at the least possible cost. This objective can mainly be achieved by ensuring that there is no interference in growth or disease outbreak and by feeding chicken with the best possible level of nutrients. With the ban on antibiotic growth promoters, attention is shifted towards other nutrition methods to prevent diseases and promote growth. More attention is therefore given to protein diets in animal nutrition due to their importance as essential part of active biological compounds in the body, assisting in the breakdown of body tissue and helping in the physiological processes of the animal. Arginine plays important function in serving as building blocks of proteins and polypeptides. It performs other roles during the regulation of important biochemical functions such as maintenance, growth, reproduction and immunity. Arginine cannot be synthesized by the body so it has to be supplemented in the diet. When arginine is supplemented above the recommended level, the gut mucosa is protected, immunosuppression is alleviated, diseases like necrotic enteritis, infectious bursal disease and coccidiosis in broiler chickens are prevented. There is an improvement in growth resulting from the increase in intestinal absorption, barrier function and microbiota composition.
Filip Benko, Valentína Palkovičová, Michal Ďuračka, Július Árvay, Norbert Lukáč and Eva Tvrdá
The aim of our study was evaluation of potential antioxidant effects of marigold (Calendula officinalis) extract and assessment of its in vitro impact on the selected quality parameters of bovine spermatozoa. Marigold is medicinal herb from the family Asteraceae native to southern Europe, and it commonly used in pharmacology and medicine. Its well-known positive properties include antioxidant, antibacterial, antiflammatory, antiviral, antifungal, antihelmintic and wound-healing activities. In this study, the flower extracts were subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which identified especially phenolic acids (rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids) and polyphenols (rutin, kaempferol, resveratrol, quercetin and apigenin). These substances are known for their antioxidant activity and protective effects against oxidative stress. For our experiments, 10 samples of semen from sexually mature Holstein bulls were collected on a single day by using an artificial vagina, diluted in physiological saline solution and exposed to solutions with different concentration of marigold flower extract (75, 150 and 300 µg/mL). Selected quality parameters (motility, mitochondrial activity, production of reactive oxygen species – ROS, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation – LPO) were analyzed after 0, 2 and 24 hours of in vitro culture. The motility evaluation was performed by using the computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) method. This method revealed that 75 and 150 µg/mL extract had positive effects and increased the motility (P<0.01) and mitochondrial activity (P<0.0001) of bovine spermatozoa compared to the control group following 2 and 24 hours. This phenomenon was observed also in case of ROS production, protein oxidation and LPO. Marigold extract concentrations of 75 and 150 µg/mL decreased the levels of ROS, protein oxidation and damage to the membranes caused by LPO compared to the control group (P<0.05; P<0.01) at time 2 and 24 hours. At the same time, 300 µg/mL extract exhibited positive, although less significant, effects compared to 75 and 150 µg/mL extracts. The data acquired from our study confirm that 75 and 150 µg/mL of marigold flower extract have positive effects on the motility and mitochondrial activity of bovine spermatozoa, and decrease ROS generation, LPO and protein oxidation in spermatozoa. Based on our results, the flower extract from marigold could be used for protection against oxidative stress in in vitro cultures of male gametes.