Filip Benko, Valentína Palkovičová, Michal Ďuračka, Július Árvay, Norbert Lukáč and Eva Tvrdá
The aim of our study was evaluation of potential antioxidant effects of marigold (Calendula officinalis) extract and assessment of its in vitro impact on the selected quality parameters of bovine spermatozoa. Marigold is medicinal herb from the family Asteraceae native to southern Europe, and it commonly used in pharmacology and medicine. Its well-known positive properties include antioxidant, antibacterial, antiflammatory, antiviral, antifungal, antihelmintic and wound-healing activities. In this study, the flower extracts were subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which identified especially phenolic acids (rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids) and polyphenols (rutin, kaempferol, resveratrol, quercetin and apigenin). These substances are known for their antioxidant activity and protective effects against oxidative stress. For our experiments, 10 samples of semen from sexually mature Holstein bulls were collected on a single day by using an artificial vagina, diluted in physiological saline solution and exposed to solutions with different concentration of marigold flower extract (75, 150 and 300 µg/mL). Selected quality parameters (motility, mitochondrial activity, production of reactive oxygen species – ROS, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation – LPO) were analyzed after 0, 2 and 24 hours of in vitro culture. The motility evaluation was performed by using the computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) method. This method revealed that 75 and 150 µg/mL extract had positive effects and increased the motility (P<0.01) and mitochondrial activity (P<0.0001) of bovine spermatozoa compared to the control group following 2 and 24 hours. This phenomenon was observed also in case of ROS production, protein oxidation and LPO. Marigold extract concentrations of 75 and 150 µg/mL decreased the levels of ROS, protein oxidation and damage to the membranes caused by LPO compared to the control group (P<0.05; P<0.01) at time 2 and 24 hours. At the same time, 300 µg/mL extract exhibited positive, although less significant, effects compared to 75 and 150 µg/mL extracts. The data acquired from our study confirm that 75 and 150 µg/mL of marigold flower extract have positive effects on the motility and mitochondrial activity of bovine spermatozoa, and decrease ROS generation, LPO and protein oxidation in spermatozoa. Based on our results, the flower extract from marigold could be used for protection against oxidative stress in in vitro cultures of male gametes.
Both COP21 and COP22 stressed the role of forests in climate protection as a natural CO2 sink. With this in mind, the study reviewed some literature findings related to afforestation, stand level management, forest soils, peatland management and storage yards to increase the amount of CO2 absorbed by the forest ecosystem. It was shown that some of the assumptions, for example, afforestation or improved water relations in soils, may contribute to reduced CO2 levels in the atmosphere. Our research was of a review nature and consisted in seeking information in various scientific publications. For a better interpretation of the results, we have divided our research into several parts. In the first part, we analysed the importance of deforestation and afforestation in the context of CO2 accumulation. We discussed the results of research on these issues giving specific examples. We have analysed the possibility of afforestation of new land. Using the example of Poland, we have indicated problems related to this issue. We have analysed the possibility of afforestation of new land. On the example of Poland, we have indicated problems related to this problem. We have come to the conclusion that in today’s Europe, the obstacle to such efforts is the lack of land that can be afforested and the financial incentive to abandon farming for forestry is too low. In the second part, we discussed the role of forest stands in the process of CO2 accumulation and reduction. We discussed breeding treatments that can be performed on racks. We noticed their importance in the CO2 reduction process. We noticed that when the density of forests increased, this has a positive effect on organic carbon storage. We presented and discussed examples of different rotation strategies in the context of their impact on CO2 accumulation. We analysed issues related to obtaining wood raw material and possible further storage of coal or its release into the atmosphere. We have recognized that proper forest soil management is important for CO2 accumulation. Therefore, another part of the research was devoted to the discussion on the role of soil in the process of CO2 accumulation. We discussed examples of using soil for forest and non-forest purposes, looking for the answer: how does this affect CO2 accumulation? In addition, we analysed the impact of soil moisture on processes related to CO2 storage. In our research, we critically treated wood storage as a method of reducing CO2. We also discussed the problem of treating wood as a source of bioenergy. We came to the conclusion that wood as an energy source can have a positive effect on CO2 reduction. The condition is, however, that energy produced from wood replaces energy from fossil fuels. Finally, we presented and discussed financial and legal issues related to CO2 reduction activities involving forests. We have found that attempts to commercialize CO2 emission reduction units for emissions generated in forests should be linked to the environmental responsibility of companies, and as such, should not be included in the current emissions’ trading policies. In the article, we also present a Polish proposal to run coal farms. We discuss their importance in the context of the issues discussed in this article.
Vukan M. Lavadinović, Dejan Beuković and Zoran Popović
The common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L. 1758) is an allochtonous game species of great importance to the hunting sector in Serbia. Growing concerns over a decline in its population raise issues about the proper management and hunting of common pheasants. As this research tends to identify the importance of common pheasants to Serbian hunters, the present study is based on a mixed research model combining traditional analyses with social studies on Serbian hunters. The data utilized have been collected from the annual management plans of 272 hunting grounds across Serbia and the interviews with 377 hunters. The results obtained suggest that there are significant differences between the analyzed variables in the management plans examined, which indicates that the pheasant hunting management in Serbia is not harmonized. However, the social studies conducted identify the common pheasant as the most hunted and popular game species with Serbian hunters. Accordingly, the common pheasant hunting and management in Serbia has to be improved in order to meet the hunters’ expectations and ensure their satisfaction.
The apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) possesses a number of health-promoting properties. The main beneficial effects of apple fruits on human health are associated with the antioxidant properties of components synthesising in apple fruits during their growth and development. Phenolic compounds and flavonoids are such components that contribute significantly to the antioxidant capacity of fruits, thus enhancing their health properties. The purpose of this study is to compare the antioxidant properties (namely antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic and flavonoid contents) of the ‘Idared’ and ‘Braeburn’ apple cultivars, grown under optimal growing conditions in the Goražde area. Ascorbic acid contents were estimated using the 2.6-dichlorophenolindophenol titration method, whereas total phenolics were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Furthermore, total flavonoids were determined using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, whereas the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay was used to determine the total antioxidant capacity of the apple fruits examined. The average values of the ascorbic acid, the total phenolic and flavonoids contents, and the total antioxidant capacity of the ‘Idared’ apples under consideration were 8.09 mg 100 g−1, 34.56 mg gallic acid equivalents 100 g−1, 12.62 mg catechin equivalents 100 g−1 and 323.28 μmol Fe2+ 100 g−1of fresh weight, respectively. The average values of the total phenolic and flavonoids contents, as well as the antioxidant capacity of the ‘Braeburn’ apples examined were as follows: 8.89 mg 100 g−1, 33.4 mg gallic acid equivalents 100 g−1, 13.56 mg catechin equivalents 100 g−1 and 367.01 μmol Fe2+ 100 g−1 of fresh weight, respectively. The analyses performed indicate that the differences recorded in the parameter values between the apple cultivars ‘Idared’ and ‘Braeburn’ were statistically non-significant. A correlation data analysis confirmed that phenolic compounds are the carriers of the antioxidant activity of apples.
Volodymyr Yu. Yarotskiy, Volodymyr P. Pasternak and Vitalii V. Nazarenko
Deadwood is an important component of forest ecosystems, and difference in the deadwood carbon stock depends on many variables including forest management. The aim of our study was to determine the patterns of formation of deadwood stocks in oak (Quercus robur L.) forests in the Left Bank Forest-steppe of Ukraine. As an outcome of the research, the data on deadwood parameters were obtained. The growth characteristics and coarse woody debris (CWD) characteristics were measured on intensive monitoring and inventory plots. Assessment of morphometric parameters of the CWD in oak stands was carried out by measuring diameters at top and bottom cut and length; to determine the carbon content, deadwood density was used. The distribution of deadwood by tree species, sizes and stages of decomposition was defined. The stock of dead trees (snags) in oak forest is 15.2 m3/ha and that of logs is 21.5 m3/ha. The carbon accumulation in oak forest stands in the Left Bank Forest-steppe of Ukraine was 3.4 and 4.5 t C/ha in dead trees and logs, respectively. The dynamics of deadwood stocks according to the results of repeated observations was given.
The effect of Phlebiopsis gigantea treatment in control of Heterobasidion parviporum in Norway spruce is less effective than that in control of Heterobasidion annosum in pine. It is necessary to apply other fungi, for example, Pleurotus abieticola in Norway spruce stands. Thus, it is necessary to assess the activity of major ligninolytic enzymes, that is, laccase, lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and versatile peroxidase (VP) produced by P. abieticola, which may be effective in the fast degradation of Norway spruce wood. Three strains of P. abieticola (Pa1-3) were grown on pieces of Norway spruce sapwood and heartwood for 50 days in laboratory conditions. Enzymatic activity was determined using spectrophotometry. Pleurotus abieticola produced laccase, LiP, MnP and VP. The activity of laccase was low, ranging 0–3.696 and 0–0.806 mU/μg of protein in sapwood and heartwood, respectively. The highest activity in Pa1 = 3.696 mU/μg of protein in sapwood and in Pa3 = 0.806 mU/μg of protein in heartwood was observed after 30 and 50 days of incubation, respectively. The activity of LiP was also low, ranging 0–0.188 and 0–0.271 mU/μg of protein in sapwood and heartwood, respectively. The highest activity in Pa1 = 0.271 mU/μg of protein in sapwood and in Pa2 = 0.188 mU/μg of protein in heartwood was observed after 40 and 20 days of incubation, respectively. The activity of MnP ranged 0–17.618 and 0–12.203 mU/μg of protein in sapwood and heartwood, respectively. This enzymatic activity peaked at the 50th day of culture on sapwood for the Pa3 strain (17.618 mU/μg of protein) and at the 20th day of culture on heartwood for the Pa1 strain (12.203 mU/μg of protein). The activity of VP with manganese-oxidising properties was found to be high in all strains of P. abieticola, ranging 0–39.19 and 0–59.153 mU/μg of protein in sapwood and heartwood, respectively, whereas the activity of VP with guaiacol-oxidising properties was very low for all P. abieticola strains, ranging 0–0.248 and 0–0.225 mU/μg of protein in sapwood and heartwood, respectively. The values of released hydroxyphenols in P. abieticola strains ranged 24.915–139.766 and 25.19–84.562 µg of protocatechuic acid/ml in sapwood and heartwood, respectively. The values of released methoxyphenols for the evaluated strains of P. abieticola ranged 7.225–23.789 and 1.953–20.651 µg of vanillic acid/ml in sapwood and heartwood, respectively. Further studies with a higher number of strains of this species as well as an optimisation of conditions for the measurement of ligninolytic activity are needed.
Stoja Jotanović, Borislav Peno, Siniša Mandić, Đorđe Savić, Marinko Vekić and Marija Jovičić
The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of antibiotic diluent additives on the motility and morphological integrity of diluted fresh boar semen during a six-day storage period. A total of 60 insemination doses, originating from two Landrace boars, were examined and allocated to control (C, n=30, diluted with BTS) and experimental groups (E, n=30, diluted with BTS upon antibiotic addition). The treatment applied exerted positive effects on the preservation of progressive motility, percentage of live sperm and HOS test results (70.24 vs. 66.53%, 71.54 vs. 69.77%, 67.35 vs. 64.17% and 64.10 vs. 54.26%;91.15 vs. 90.02%, 88.38 vs. 85.55%, 81.50 vs. 76.13% and 74.53 vs. 68.72%; and 93.35 vs. 92.40%, 91.04 vs. 88.02 %, 84.67 vs. 78.15% and 77.27 vs. 69.44% HOS+ sperm for the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 6th day of storage, respectively). The results obtained indicate that the treatment applied has a favourable effect on preserving the quality parameters of diluted fresh boar semen during storage, resulting most likely from a reduction of bacterial contamination.
Mihaela Kavran, Dušan Petrić, Aleksandra Ignjatović-Ćupina and Marija Zgomba
The housefly Musca domestica is a cosmopolitan insect nuisance pest, also known as a carrier of numerous pathogens both to humans and animals. Animal farms, as a very important source of house flies, simultaneously allow for all stages of their development. Having vast quantities of constantly present manure, pig units represent perfect environment for house fly breeding. This fact, coupled with the known resistance to majority of available insecticides, creates difficulties in house fly control. The present study was performed to evaluate different types of monitoring methods for indoor use: (a) spot deposit records on the cardboard; (b) fly trappings by: glue coated cardboard; (c) sticky fly strips; (d) yellow sticky cards; (e) visual records of flies on the cardboard. This study provided a clear differentiation of efficacy/usefulness of the tested methods for various house fly densities. In animal breeding units or other areas with very abundant fly population, less sensitive methods (traps are less efficient) should be selected. For these circumstances, glued cardboard or yellow sticky cards should be chosen. The “more sensitive” methods, spot cards and sticky fly strips, should be used for lower abundance of the fly population. Except for this purpose, these highly sensitive methods should be selected also in the areas where the flies should not be tolerated at any density. Although the levels of the observed fly activity significantly differ from each other, in the majority of cases they depict the similar trend of the population dynamics and relative density. The only exception to the rule was the visual method, which could not reflect the changes in the population density in the current study.
Annisa, Rini Hafzari, Tia Setiawati, Budi Irawan and Joko Kusmoro
Conservation of bamboos for future exploitation as fuel, fibre and as an ingredient for cosmetics depends on knowledge of its natural genetic variation. The study of molecular genetic diversity in bamboos will provide important information for its conservation. This article reports on the genetic diversity in 25 species representing five genera of bamboos found in Indonesia using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers. Out of 40 primers, 24 primers produced 1107 total bands and 86.21% of polymorphic bands across the 25 species. Sixteen bands were uniquely found in one species only and their presence or absence helped to define nine bamboo species. RAPD band sizes ranged from 162 to 2247 base pairs. A dendrogram based on the similarity coefficient of Dice divided the bamboo species into three big clusters. In conclusion, RAPD can capture the diversity among five different bamboo genera and has a great potential to be used in the study of genetic diversity in Indonesian bamboos.
The functioning of forest districts in Poland should be based on their mutual cooperation with local authorities in order to achieve social interest, one of the examples of which is construction or reconstruction of roads. Due to the fact that achieving mutual investments encounter real legal problems arising from underspecified and unclear concepts, an assessment should be made of whether the construction and reconstruction of forest roads is a public purpose and also answer, what is a forest and forest road within the meaning of the provisions of the Act. It is necessary to present views of legal science and jurisdiction of administrative courts. The judicial direction of administrative courts is not beneficial for achieving investments; it does not even take into account that one of the investors’ purposes – forest districts – is nature management. Presenting the contrary argumentation to judicature positions should help courts make a proper assessment in the interpretation of provisions.