Aloysius Suratin, Eka Triakuntini and Herdis Herdiansyah
The status of the availability of water resources in DKI (Indonesia’s Special Region of) Jakarta has reached a critical phase. Determination of progressive tariffs by the DKI Jakarta Provincial Government in 2007 aimed to encourage water users to use water resources rationally and in a sustainable way. However, since the launch of the policy, there has been no evaluation to determine the effectiveness of these progressive tariffs. This research analysed empirical data to examine the effect of policy interventions on water use behaviour in DKI Jakarta. An analysis was carried out by calculating water usage before progressive tariffs were applied and comparing them to water use after the tariffs were applied. Another analysis calculated the number of customers before and after the implementation of progressive tariffs and compared the changes. The increase in water prices plotted are stated in nominal value by assuming the average level of inflation in Jakarta (especially the price of water) was nearly under 2 percent and the price of water was not controlled by the market mechanism The results of this study indicate that before progressive tariffs were applied, water consumption had declined despite an increase in the number of customers, however, water consumption increased after the implementation. This shows that progressive tariffs are effective instruments to distribute clean water access through cross-subsidies, however, it has no effect on consumption levels.
Michaela Havlíková, Lucie Crespo Stupková and Lenka Plíšková
This paper proposes a new methodology for assessing the potential of sustainable tourism. It examines the overall potential of the landscape when faced with the negative impacts of tourism. Our assessment combines components of tourism and environmental sustainability. The methodology involved consultation with experts, and verification by tourists before being applied to the study area. The methodology was then applied to selected tourism centres in the Giant Mountains. The Giant Mountains are a popular tourist destination thanks to their outstanding natural beauty, and represent significant potential for tourism development. They are also one of the most over-burdened regions from tourism in the Czech Republic. However, many negative impacts of tourism exist, reducing the overall tourism potential of the region. Comparative results from the individual tourist centres in the study reveal the significant impact of potentially reducing attributes. Our assessment of the potential for sustainable tourism development in the area thus combines the environmental aspect of sustainable forms of tourism, with the identification of the most serious threats that need to be avoided to maintain the environment in the long-term. The results reveal the significant impact of excessive and inappropriate infrastructure and housing, as well as insufficient environmental education and legislation.
Starting from the 1970s, the discussion about the negative effects of human activity on the world has accelerated and with a increasingly raised voice and it has been noted that the natural balance of our world was being altered. The World Health Organization has focused its policies and directives on strategies aimed on dealing with climate change (and its impact on human health), and diseases related to air pollution and implementing health-related sustainable development goals in climate friendly-hospitals. Hospitals exist to treat patients, but they also pollute the environment because hospitals consume a lot of energy and water and produce hazardous waste. These organizations need to work hard to improve their carbon footprints. The study investigated practices at 21 public hospitals in Konya, Turkey. Results show that domestic waste was on average 54.83 tons per year, medical waste was 33.59 tons per year and packing waste was 24.36 tons per year. It was determined that medical waste disposal costs on average of €26,800 per annum, and the amount of medical waste per bed was 1.15 kilograms per annum. According to 2014 medical waste data the average medical waste per bed of these hospitals in Konya province is less than the average in Turkish public hospitals, in which it is 1.18 kilograms per bed. The hospitals in our study were found to be especially inadequate at water management and did not pay much attention to green practices.
Nowadays climate change is amongst the most critical problems affecting the wellbeing of human beings. In Ethiopia, where the majority of the population rely on agriculture, climate change has adverse effects. In rural areas, low resilient capacity to shocks exacerbates the impacts of climate change such as production failure, which in turn enormously contributed to food insecurity. In view of this fact, this study assessed the perceptions and practices of climate change and related adaptation and mitigation strategies among farmers in the Konta Special District, Southern Ethiopia, by using a mixed research approach involving a concurrent method of data collection and analysis. Quantitative data for this study was generated from 296 randomly selected survey households; while, qualitative data was collected through focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and in-depth interviews. The findings of this study revealed that sample respondents recognized the occurrence climate change and its increasing adverse effects. Regarding its cause, a substantial proportion (46.8%) of the respondents perceived climate change as the wrath of God and a natural phenomenon rather than attributing it to human activities. Participants also acknowledged that anthropogenic factors such as deforestation are the major driving factors for climate change. The study found that farmers affirmatively perceive the feasibility of the majority of the strategies embraced in the Climate Resilient Green Economy initiative endorsed at national level. Understanding that climate change effects are less reversible, farmers were found to practice mitigation strategies such as afforestation, agroforestry and agricultural intensification more than adaptation strategies. Adaptation strategies such as fuel conservation technologies were perceived costly and complex given the economic capacity and skill of farmers. Hence, rural and agricultural development policies should initiate context sensitive adaptation and mitigation strategies to enhance the capability of smallholders to deal with the effects of climate change.
The study attempts to determine the service connections of the cities of the Katowice conurbation. The analysis was based on surveys conducted among 845 residents representing all cities in the conurbation, who were asked about using services in other cities. The collected material allowed the author to state that the practice of using services outside their place of residence, in other cities, is quite common, as 63% of respondents do so. The cities of the conurbation have a different impact on other centres, which allowed us to determine the service hierarchy of the conurbation cities. In all but one city, the inhabitants most often indicated that they used services located in Katowice, thus as the only city used this has an impact covering the entire Katowice conurbation. Seven other cities (Bytom, Chorzów, Dąbrowa Górnicza, Gliwice, Sosnowiec, Tychy and Zabrze) demonstrate sub-conurbation influences, which are mainly limited to neighbouring cities. The impact of cities within a mini-conurbation (4 cities) and a micro-conurbation (5 cities) were also identified. These have a limited impact on neighbouring centres, but, only in selected service areas. The collected information indicates that the inhabitants of the conurbation most often go to another city for commercial and cultural purposes and in connection with practising sports and recreation.
The crime rate can vary in different geographical areas, and several studies have tried to explain the crime rate by concentrating on the socio-economic characteristics of an environment. The literature on the subject shows a lack of attention to spatial analysis and its relationship which this research attempts to address. The main aim of this study was to investigate the spatial correlation between social capital and crime in the city of Pardis in Iran. A five-point Likert questionnaire survey was conducted among 297 citizens of the new town of Pardis. The survey included 27 questions about the social capital component (trust, attention, awareness) and crime hotspots collected from the police office. A mapping raster layer of both crime and social capital and Band Collection Statistics Tools in ArcGIS were used to show the spatial correlation between crime and social capital. The main findings of this study revealed that there was a statistically significant reverse correlation between social capital and crime in the correlation matrix. The study also illustrated that some of the crime subsets such as fighting (r = -0.74), family conflicts (r = -0.72), and moral crime (r = - 0.62) were more related to social capital than other social capital components in a neighborhood.
The authors of the article sought to answer the questions: do geography teachers feel a tie with their place of work, what is the strength of this relationship and what factors influence these declared ties with the place. A step towards knowing the answers is the declared subjective assessment of emotional relationships with such a place. To this end, surveys were conducted among geography teachers. Due to their profession, they are a social group having a wide range of influence on young people and their attitudes towards their local geographical environment. Organizational reasons (the ability to reach teachers of all schools through the information exchange platform between Board of Education and school heads – so-called the headmasters panel) decided to examine a selected group of respondents – geography teachers of the Silesian Voivodeship. Google questionnaire was used as an electronic form of data collection. The research was quantitative and only partly qualitative. The analysis of the obtained results gave an interesting view of the perception of teachers' relations with the place where their school is located – their place of work. Almost all respondents declared the existence of a territorial bond with their place of work. The workplace itself is an important factor in the formation and strength of these ties. The length of residence in a given place was also important, and its type (town or a village) and size were less important. For half of the surveyed teachers, it was difficult for them to indicate the distinguishing feature (symbol) of their place of work, regardless of whether they were inhabitants or commuters from elsewhere.
Ayobami A. Akanmu, Umar O. Salisu, Simeon O. Fasina and Samuel A. Okunubi
Efforts to liberate the populace, most especially rural communities, from the shackles of poverty, have been ongoing through several approaches since the independent era in Nigeria. The most recent is the Local Empowerment and Environmental Management Programme (LEEMP) which is tailored to undertake projects capable of alleviating poverty. This study assessed the LEEMP projects in Itesiwaju Local Government Area of Oyo State in Nigeria. Data collection methods were through a questionnaire survey and an interview. A random sampling technique was employed to sample 152 residents from the study population of 30,400 and the results were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. A binary logistics regression was used to determine the influence of the LEEMP projects on the socio-economic status of residents. The findings revealed that: LEEMP projects were mostly the initiatives of both the community and LEEMP officials (72%); over 80% of the respondents observed that community involvement was mainly about land provision and the labour force, justifying over 70% active involvement of the community in the project execution and maintenance. Inferentially, the prediction model was able to classify 83% of the cases correctly, indicating that the predictors contribute significantly to prediction power of the logistic regression model (p<0.000). The Pseudo R-Square of Cox & Snell’s R-square (28%) and Nagelkerke’s R (42%) also show that the model was relevant in predicting the influence of the LEEMP projects on the residents’ socio-economic status. However, age (p=0.000), household size (p=0.019), average monthly income (p=0.033), and educational status (p=0.038) predictors best contributed to the model prediction. The study, however, recommended among others, that the LEEMP projects should be extended extensively within the country accompanied by an injection of adequate funding and a project monitoring mechanism for continuous functionality and sustainability.
Aneesha Satya Bandi, Shashi Meshapam and Pratap Deva
Dense urbanization leading to uncontrolled transformations within settlements result in flash flooding with overflowing drains leading to a greater inconvenience for the public and damage to private properties. Hence mapping of flash floods would be useful in identifying the high-risk flood zones for disaster response and urban services, during emergencies with rainfall events of high intensity. This article aims to prepare a flood hazard map of Warangal Municipal Corporation (WMC) in Telangana State, India. WMC is chronically affected due to a rise in water levels resulting in flash floods, with an increase in encroachments. The factors considered in this study are rainfall (curve number), surface slope and surface roughness, type of soil, and distance to main channel, drainage density, and land use cover. To decide the relative weight of the impact of each flood causative factors an Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) was used. Accordingly, a composite Flood Hazard Index (FHI) has been derived by using the multiple-criteria decision-making tools by integrating these into a Geographical Information System (GIS). The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in Quantum GIS (QGIS), which is a hydrological model, was used to evaluate the projection of streamflow over the water basin and model parameters were optimized using water balance equations during calibration and validation periods.
Najum us Saqib, Asim Yaqub, Gomal Amin, Imran Khan, Faridullah, Huma Ajab, Iftikhar Zeb and Didar Ahmad
The northern area of Pakistan, Gilgit Baltistan (GB), has huge tourist potential due to its exotic mountain beauty. According to the GB Tourism Department, a large number of tourists (around 200651) visit GB every year from across the country. Due to a large influx of tourists in the area both positive and negative impacts have been felt especially on the environment and on the local communities. The environmental impacts of tourism were investigated in this research in two districts of GB. Three villages were selected from each of the districts of Hunza and Diamer as the basis of this research. This study was based on the perceptions and attitudes of the respondents. The total number of questionnaires completed was 340 filled from different respondent categories. Results showed that deforestation, loss of biodiversity, generation of solid waste, water, air and noise pollution, damage cultural and heritage sites and are the main environmental issues caused by tourism activities in the villages in these districts. About 42% of respondents said that deforestation and loss of biodiversity were high in the Diamer district while in Hunza 39% of respondents said that solid waste generation was high. Similarly, 21% respondents in Hunza and 14% respondents in Diamer agreed that water pollution is caused by tourism activities. Microbial analysis of water confirmed the presence of Salmonella typhi, E. coli and Enterobacter sp. There were positive impacts of tourism with results revealing that 87% of villagers and 98% of businessmen responded that tourism had provided them with jobs and business during the peak tourism season. Hotels and restaurants are the main source of jobs in GB mainly as porters and guides. According to the data collected dry fruits, medicinal herbs, gemstones and handicrafts provided considerable attractions for tourists. It is recommended that a combined effort be made by the local communities, tourism departments and other Govt. Agencies to ensure the cleanliness of tourist attractions.