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African swine fever virus – the possible role of flies and other insects in virus transmission

Abstract

African swine fever (ASF) is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease of pigs and wild boars. It presents a serious threat to pig production worldwide, and since 2007, ASF outbreaks have been recorded in the Caucasus, Eastern Europe, and the Baltic States. In 2014, the disease was detected in Poland. ASF is on the list of notifiable diseases of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Due to the lack of an available vaccine and treatment, the countermeasures against the disease consist in early detection of the virus in the pig population and control of its spread through the elimination of herds affected by disease outbreaks. Knowledge of the potential vectors of the virus and its persistence in the environment is crucial to prevent further disease spread and to understand the new epidemiology for how it compares to the previous experience in Spain gathered in the 1970s and 1980s.

Open access
Hypothermia effects on liver and kidney oxidative stress parameters in an experimental model of sepsis in rats

Abstract

A Introduction

Oxidative stress (OS) seems to be an important mediator of cellular injury, from which sepsis can proceed. Studies have demonstrated the protective effect of controlled hypothermia in sepsis. This study aimed to evaluate its effects on OS parameters in rat hepatic and renal tissue septic after caecal ligation and puncture (CLP).

Material and Methods

Three groups were appointed (10 rats/group): C (control), SN (sepsis normothermic), and SH (sepsis hypothermic). Ten hours from CLP, the liver and kidneys were harvested and total protein concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, lipid peroxidation level (malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonylated proteins (2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), and fatty acid profile were analysed.

Results

Sepsis significantly increased SOD and GPx activities in the liver, regardless of the temperature. In renal tissue, GPx activity increased significantly in normothermic conditions and SOD tended to decrease in hypothermic conditions. MDA and DNPH concentrations increase in both tissues after CLP. Hypothermia significantly lowered MDA in the liver but only changed it insignificantly in the kidneys. The DNPH in the liver and kidneys was significantly lower in hypothermic conditions. The unsaturated-to-saturated fatty acids ratio was significantly lower in sepsis, and the fall in temperature raised this ratio.

Conclusion

Experimentally induced sepsis in rats enhances OS in the liver and kidneys. The effect of hypothermia on OS indices is dependent on the type of tissue.

Open access
Molecular characterisation of the Mycobacterium bovis causing bovine tuberculosis outbreaks in Poland

Abstract

Introduction

Since 2009, Poland has been recognised as a country officially free of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), although in each year of the last five there were from 8 to 18 outbreaks of the disease. In 2008–2016, the largest number of cattle infected with bovine mycobacteria were eliminated in the Masovian Province (the central region of Poland) and the largest number of outbreaks of this zoonosis were recorded in this area. The close proximity of farms where bTB was found led to the suspicion that tuberculosis could have been transmitted between the affected herds. The aim of the study was the molecular characterisation of the pertinent M. bovis/caprae strains and determination of the epidemiological relationship of various bTB outbreaks.

Material and Methods

The material for microbiological tests came from 119 cattle (Bos taurus) from nine herds located in five provinces, neighbouring the Masovian Province.

Results

Laboratory tests of tissue material gave results confirming tuberculosis in 54 (45%) animals. All strains belonged to the Mycobacterium bovis species. A two-step analysis of genetic affinity allowed 50 strains to be identified as phylogenetically closely related and separated between three genetic clusters consisting of 2 to 27 strains.

Conclusion

Based on the results of genotyping, bTB outbreaks were found in three herds, and three transmission chains were identified among these herds.

Open access
Non-antibiotic possibilities in prevention and treatment of calf diarrhoea

Abstract

Due to increasing bacterial antibiotic resistance and the consumers’ tendency to choose organic products, cattle farmers are interested in alternative methods of calf diarrhoea treatment. This is a major challenge for veterinarians. Few methods of non-antibiotic treatment that bring satisfactory results have been reported in the related literature so far. In this article, the authors compare different non-antibiotic methods of diarrhoea prevention and treatment in calves. Among the alternatives discussed are herbs, probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics, lactoferrin, and bacteriophages. It was found that the best results could be achieved through the use of pro-, pre- and synbiotics. However, the authors would like to point out that with the expansion of knowledge about the practical use of broad-scale bacteriophages, they could be the best alternative to antibiotics.

Open access
Early detection of active glomerular lesions in dogs and cats using podocin

Abstract

In veterinary medicine, sensitive and specific markers of the early stages of renal failure still remain to be established. Podocytes could be a promising diagnostic tool in veterinary nephrology, especially in the differentiation of active pathological disease and glomerulopathies. Podocin is one of the robust proteins exploitable in detection of podocyturia. This article presents podocyte detection in urine for diagnostic purposes in veterinary medicine using a variety of methods. We describe the advantages and disadvantages of the immunohistochemical technique currently used, and of scanning microscopy, chromatography, and immunostaining. The identification of podocin-positive cells is a promising diagnostic tool in the detection of the early stages of glomerular basement membrane damage. The detection of renal failure prior to the occurrence of azotaemia is of high clinical importance from the clinical and scientific points of view.

Open access
Elaboration of triplex PCR for detection of selected viral infections in waterfowl

Abstract

Introduction

Viral infections are the greatest threat to waterfowl and cause significant economic losses. Diagnosis and differentiation of three goose viruses is difficult in the field and often requires laboratory confirmation. Therefore, the aim of the study was to develop a triplex PCR and optimise its parameters for simultaneous detection of DNA of goose parvovirus (GPV), goose polyomavirus (GHPV), and goose circovirus (GoCV).

Material and Methods

The DNA of viruses isolated from field cases from the National Veterinary Research Institute’s own collection was used for the study. The primer attachment temperature, the number of reaction cycles, and the Taq DNA polymerase and Mg2+ concentrations were optimised. The sensitivity and specificity of this triplex PCR was also determined.

Results

Based on the obtained results, triplex PCR parameters were optimised for simultaneous detection of DNA of GPV, GHPV, and GoCV in one sample. The following PCR products of the expected size were obtained: GPV DNA of 806 bp, GoCV DNA of 571 bp, and GHPV DNA of 180 bp.

Conclusion

The developed triplex PCR method proved to be useful for simultaneous detection of infections with three waterfowl viruses and will be used in relevant laboratory diagnostics.

Open access
Gastrointestinal nematodes of goats: host–parasite relationship differences in breeds at summer mountain pasture in northern Italy

Abstract

Introduction

The Orobic goat is a hardy breed native to the Orobic Alps (Lombardy, northern Italy). The aim of the study was the assessment of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) egg excretion in Alpine and Saanen (cosmopolite breeds) and Orobic grazing goats, after a strategic treatment with eprinomectin in late June.

Material and Methods

Individual faecal samples from a mixed flock of cosmopolite and Orobic goats were collected and analysed by the FLOTAC double technique every three weeks from June to September.

Results

Strongylida was the primary GIN infection observed in goats that grazed on Alpine pastures; a strategic treatment with eprinomectin led to a prolonged reduction of egg excretion during the whole study period. Egg excretion was also influenced by breed. Pluriparous Orobic does were able to control reinfection better than the pluriparous cosmopolite does. Regarding Nematodirus sp. eggs per gram of faeces (EPG), the autochthonous Orobic breed presented higher values than the cosmopolite breeds. However, cosmopolite goats presented higher EPG values of Strongyloides papillosus than their Orobic counterparts in August.

Conclusions

Further studies on genetic features of local autochthonous goats, such as the Orobic breed, are needed, since they could reveal peculiar characteristics of susceptibility, resistance or resilience to GIN infection, providing genetic resources for selection.

Open access
Molecular detection and genetic diversity of porcine circovirus type 3 in commercial pig farms in Xinjiang province, China

Abstract

Introduction

Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is a newly discovered porcine circovirus. The molecular characteristics and genetic evolution of PCV3 in Xinjiang province, China still being unclear, the aim of the study was their elucidation.

Material and Methods

A total of 393 clinical samples were collected from pigs on commercial farms in nine different regions of Xinjiang and phylogenetic analysis based on full-length Cap genes was performed.

Results

The prevalence at farm level was 100%, while in all the tested samples it was 22.39%. Nine PCV3 strains were detected in Xinjiang province and they shared 98.9–99.3% nucleotide and 97.5–100.0% Cap gene amino acid sequence identities with other epidemic strains from China and abroad. Compared with other epidemic strains of PCV3, there were 26 base mutation sites in the Cap gene in the nine Xinjiang strains, resulting in the mutation of amino acids at positions 20, 24, 75, 77, 108, 111 and 206. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains can be divided into two different genetic groups, to the first of which five strains affiliated and divided between subgroups 1.1 and 1.2, and to the second of which the other four strains affiliated and similarly divided between subgroups 2.1 and 2.2.

Conclusion

PCV3 circulates widely among commercial pig farms in Xinjiang province, China, and displays obvious genetic diversity. The results provide epidemiological information useful for the prevention and control of PCV3 infection in the pig industry.

Open access
Pathological changes in natural infection of pheasants with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N8) in Bulgaria

Abstract

Introduction

The study of histopathological changes caused by influenza A (H5N8) viral infection in bird species is essential for the understanding of their role in the spread of this highly infectious virus. However, there are few such studies under natural conditions in minor gallinaceous species. This article describes the pathomorphological findings in Colchis pheasants infected naturally with H5N8 during an epizootic outbreak in Bulgaria.

Material and Methods

Samples of internal organs of 10 carcasses were collected for histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation, virus isolation and identification, and nucleic acid detection.

Results

Consistent macroscopic findings were lesions affecting the intestine, heart, lung, and pancreas. Congestion and mononuclear infiltrate were common findings in the small intestine, as were necrosis and lymphoid clusters in the lamina propria of the caeca. Congestion with small focal necrosis and gliosis with multifocal nonpurulent encephalitis were observed in the brain. Myocardial interstitial oedema and degenerative necrobiotic processes were also detected. Immunohistological analysis confirmed systemic infection and revealed influenza virus nucleoprotein in all analysed organs.

Conclusion

Variable necrosis was observed in the brain, liver, trachea, heart, small intestine, and caeca. Viral antigen was commonly found in the brain, heart, lung and trachea. Contact with migrating waterfowls was suspected as a reason for the outbreak.

Open access
Quality control of immunological veterinary medicinal products in Europe

Abstract

Medicinal products in Europe are under the strict control of many organisations headed by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and HealthCare (EDQM) in Strasbourg and its related General European Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs) Network (GEON). The EDQM works in cooperation with the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the World Health Organisation (WHO). All of these institutions have one main goal – to protect public health in Europe and around the world. One of the more important effects of the harmonisation of pharmaceutical law in Europe was the introduction of the mutual recognition principle for the Official Control Authority Batch Release (OCABR)/Official Batch Protocol Review (OBPR) certificates in the European Union. The National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) in Poland is an example of an OMCL laboratory within the Veterinary Batch Release Network (VBRN) that issues the European certificates. The NVRI is actively involved in the batch release of immunological veterinary medicinal products (IVMPs), with approximately 1,800 certificates for IVMPs issued per year. It is also one of only four veterinary OMCLs that perform Post Marketing Surveillance (PMS) studies including approximately 47 IVMPs per year. All the results of the testing data are sent to the Chief Veterinary Officer, and also to the electronic Network platforms of the EDQM, which enables transparent information exchange.

Open access