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Self-image and selected clinical variables in the context of childhood abuse in subjects with alcohol dependence

Abstract

Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the differences in selected clinical variables and self-image in people with alcohol dependence differing in severity of physical, emotional and sexual abuse experienced before age 18.

Method: The study included 90 people with alcohol dependence. The following research tools were used: Early Trauma Inventory (ETI), Adjective Check List (ACL), MAST, SAAD, and a questionnaire designed by the authors. In order to identify groups with varying indices of physical, emotional and sexual childhood abuse, a cluster analysis method was used.

Results: Two groups of subjects with alcohol dependence were identified: Group 1 with high indices of physical, emotional and sexual childhood abuse and Group 2 with low indices. In terms of self-image the subjects in Group 1 compared to subjects in Group 2 were characterized by a lower self-esteem, self-acceptance, resistance to stress, less intense needs for achievement, endurance, order, nurturing others, interaction with opposite-sex partners, subordinations but more intense need for change. The age of alcohol use initiation and the onset of regular alcohol drinking was statistically significantly lower in Group 1. The severity of alcohol dependence was significantly lower in Group 2. The subjects in Group 1 significantly more frequently confirmed the history of a hereditary predisposition to alcohol dependence, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and self-harm.

Discussion: The obtained results closely correspond to the data available in the literature.

Conclusions: An assessment of exposure to various forms of childhood abuse appears to be an indispensable element of collecting medical history of people with alcohol dependence.

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The bone hormones and their potential effects on glucose and energy metabolism

Abstract

The bones form the framework of our body. We know that bones protect our vital organs, regulate calcium and phosphorous homeostasis, and function as a site of erythropoiesis. More recently, however, the identification of bone hormones has allowed us to envision bones as endocrine organs too. Within the last few years, the bone hormones osteocalcin and lipocalin 2 have been implicated with glucose and energy metabolism. We systematically reviewed articles surrounding this subject and found a clear relationship between the osteocalcin levels and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. We also found that many journals have shown the detrimental effects of an absences of lipocalin 2 from adipocytes. As osteocalcin administration to mice showed decreased blood glucose levels and promoted glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Future studies could perhaps explore the use of osteocalcin as a supplement for type 2 diabetes.

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The coexistence of infundibular pituicytoma and Cushing’s disease due to pituitary adenoma: A case report

Abstract

Objectives. Pituicytomas are rare, solid, well-circumscribed, low grade (grade I), non-neuroendocrine, and noninfiltrative tumors of the neurohypophysis or infundibulum, which appear in the sellar/suprasellar regions. Herein, we present a case with Cushing’s disease (CD) caused by an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma in association with an infundibular pituicytoma.

Subject and Results. A 37-year-old male patient presented to the hospital with a six-month history of blurry vision. Physical examination demonstrated plethora, excessive sweating, weight gain, moon facies, and acne. Basal serum cortisol and ACTH levels were 16 µg/dl and 32 pg/ml, respectively. The results of screening tests were suggestive of Cushing syndrome. It was also 1.97 µg/dl following 8 mg dexamethasone suppression test which was consistent with CD. Pituitary MR imaging revealed a single lesion measuring 6x6.5 mm on the pituitary stalk. Infundibular mass excision and pituitary exploration by extended endoscopic endonasal approach were applied. On immunohistochemistry, strong diffuse immunolabeling for both S100 and TTF-1 was noted for the cells of infundibular mass, diagnosed as pituicytoma. Because the developed panhypopituitarism postoperatively, patient was discharged with daily desmopressin, levothyroxine, hydrocortisone, and intramuscular testosterone, once a month.

Conclusions. Pituicytoma is an uncommon noninvasive tumor of the sellar and suprasellar regions. In this case report, we described a patient with Cushing’s disease to whom MRI displayed only an infundibular well-circumscribed lesion, but not any pituitary adenoma. Despite the absence of any sellar lesion, awareness of other undetected possible lesion and exploring hypophysis during the transsphenoidal surgery is mandatory for the correct diagnosis.

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Comparing the preventive effect of sodium hydrosulfide, leptin, and curcumin against L-arginine induced acute pancreatitis in rats: role of corticosterone and inducible nitric oxide synthase

Abstract

Objectives. Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a life-threatening condition. Using antioxidants in AP is insufficient and conflicting. Therefore, this study compared the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), leptin or curcumin pretreatment on AP induced by L-arginine.

Methods. Forty adult male rats were used and classified into: 1) control; 2) AP group [each rat was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 2 doses of L-arginine of 250 mg/100 g body weight (b.w.) with an interval of 1 h]; 3) NaHS+AP group (each rat was i.p. injected with 10 mg/kg b.w. of NaHS 1 h before induction of AP); 4) leptin+AP group (each rat was pretreated with 10 μg/kg b.w. of leptin 30 min before induction of AP; and 5) curcumin+AP group (in which rats were i.p. injected with 150 mg/kg b.w. of curcumin 30 min before induction of AP). Serum amylase, lipase, nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and corticosterone (CORT) levels were assayed. In addition, pancreatic tissues were obtained for histopathological examination and malondialde-hyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels were measured.

Results. All AP treated groups showed significant decrease in serum levels of pancreatic enzymes, NO, and TNF-α, and pancreatic MDA and iNOS levels, while TAC levels were significantly increased. NaHS caused more limitation of inflammation than leptin and curcumin by affecting iNOS. Leptin was more potent than curcumin due to the stimulatory effect of leptin on glucocorticoid release to counteract inflammation.

Conclusions. NaHS was more effective in AP amelioration than the leptin and curcumin.

Open access
Early postnatal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reduced insulin sensitivity in adult rats

Abstract

Objective. Early life stress influences the development of metabolic disorders, including functional changes in the developing of pancreas mediated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In the present study, the role of an early postnatal stress on corticosterone, glucose, and insulin levels was investigated during young adulthood.

Methods. Two groups of pups were studied, including control group (pups not receiving foot shock by communication box), and early stress group (pups receiving foot shock by communication box 2 times/day for 5 consecutive days). In rats, concentration of plasma corticosterone, glucose, and insulin was detected before and after placing them into the communication box at 2 weeks of age. At 8–10 weeks of age, concentrations of plasma corticosterone, glucose, and insulin and glucose tolerance were measured in young adult rats.

Results. Our results showed that early postnatal foot shock stress increased the corticosterone, insulin, and glucose levels in the postnatal age (p<0.01) that did not last until young adult age, but it caused a significant increase in plasma glucose and insulin levels (p<0.05) following the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) in young adult rats.

Conclusions. These results suggest that impaired IPGTT in young adult rats who experienced early postnatal stress can indicate insulin resistance or reduced insulin sensitivity that make it at risk of the type 2 diabetes later in life.

Open access
Effect of glucose deprivation on the expression of genes encoding glucocorticoid receptor and some related factors in ERN1-knockdown U87 glioma cells

Abstract

Objective. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of glucose deprivation on the expression of genes encoded glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and some related proteins (NR3C2, AHR, NRIP1, NNT, ARHGAP35, SGK1, and SGK3) in U87 glioma cells in response to inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling mediated by ERN1/IRE1 (endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1/inositol requiring enzyme 1) for evaluation of their possible significance in the control of glioma growth through endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling mediated by IRE1 and glucose deprivation.

Methods. The expression of NR3C1, NR3C2, AHR, NRIP1, NNT, ARHGAP35, SGK1, and SGK3 genes in U87 glioma cells transfected by empty vector pcDNA3.1 (control cells) and cells without ERN1 signaling enzyme function (transfected by dnERN1) under glucose deprivation was studied by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Results. It was shown that the expression level of NR3C2, AHR, SGK1, SGK3, and NNT genes was up-regulated in control U87 glioma cells under glucose deprivation condition in comparison with the control cells growing with glucose. At the same time, the expression of NRIP1 gene is down-regulated in these glioma cells under glucose deprivation, but NR3C1 and ARHGAP35 genes was resistant to this experimental condition. We also showed that inhibition of ERN1 signaling enzyme function significantly modified the response of most studied gene expressions to glucose deprivation condition. Thus, effect of glucose deprivation on the expression level of NR3C2, AHR, and SGK1 genes was significantly stronger in ERN1 knockdown U87 glioma cells since the expression of NNT gene was resistant to glucose deprivation condition. Moreover, the inhibition of ERN1 enzymatic activities in U87 glioma cells led to up-regulation of ARHGAP35 gene expression and significant down-regulation of the expression of SGK3 gene in response to glucose deprivation condition.

Conclusions. Results of this study demonstrated that glucose deprivation did not change the expression level of NR3C1 gene but it significantly affected the expression of NR3C2, AHR, NRIP, SGK1, SGK3, and NNT genes in vector-transfected U87 glioma cells in gene specific manner and possibly contributed to the control of glioma growth since the expression of most studied genes in glucose deprivation condition was significantly dependent on the functional activity of IRE1 signaling enzyme.

Open access
Effect of letrozole on spermogram parameters and hormonal profile in infertile men: A clinical trial study

Abstract

Objective. There is no reliable treatment for men with idiopathic infertility, but the relationship between severe sperm production and the ratio of estrogen to testosterone levels has been shown. Aromatase is an enzyme that plays an important role in converting testosterone to estradiol and androstenedione to estrogen. Aromatase inhibitors can increase testosterone and androgen production without increasing the amount of estrogen in circulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aromatase inhibitor letrozole on the male infertility.

Method. This pre- and post-quasi-experimental clinical trial was carried out on 41 men with an infertility diagnosis. The basic hormonal profile included FSH, LH, testosterone, and estradiol. The ratio of testosterone to serum estradiol was also calculated and recorded. The sperm analysis was performed before the treatment and the seminal parameters were evaluated and recorded. Patients were then treated with letrozole 2.5 mg daily for 4 months. At the end of 4th months, the hormonal profile was studied and seminal analysis performed and recorded.

Results. The levels of FSH, LH, testosterone, and estradiol, and the ratio of testosterone to estradiol increased significantly after letrozole treatment. The sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm forward motion significantly increased after letrozole treatment. Sperm morphology only lightly altered.

Conclusion. The ratio of testosterone to estradiol levels in infertile men treated with aromatase inhibitor improved and caused changes in sperm parameters. Letrozole may be used to improve sperm parameters in infertile men with low serum testosterone to estradiol ratio.

Open access
Hypoxic regulation of EDN1, EDNRA, EDNRB, and ECE1 gene expressions in ERN1 knockdown U87 glioma cells

Abstract

Objective. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of hypoxia on the expression of genes encoding endothelin-1 (EDN1) and its cognate receptors (EDNRA and EDNRB) as well as endothelin converting enzyme 1 (ECE1) in U87 glioma cells in response to inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling mediated by ERN1/IRE1 (endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1) for evaluation of their possible significance in the control of glioma growth through ERN1 and hypoxia.

Methods. The expression level of EDN1, EDNRA, EDNRB, and ECE1 genes as well as micro-RNA miR-19, miR-96, and miR-206 was studied in control and ERN1 knockdown U87 glioma cells under hypoxia by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Results. It was shown that the expression level of EDN1, EDNRA, EDNRB, and ECE1 genes was up-regulated in ERN1 knockdown glioma cells in comparison with the control glioma cells, being more significant for endothelin-1. We also observed down-regulation of microRNA miR-206, miR-96, and miR-19a, which have specific binding sites in mRNA EDN1, EDNRA, and EDNRB, correspondingly, and can participate in posttranscriptional regulation of these mRNA expressions. Furthermore, inhibition of ERN1 endoribonuclease lead to up-regulation of EDNRA and ECE1 gene expressions and down-regulation of the expression level of EDN1 and EDNRB genes in glioma cells. Thus, the expression of EDNRA and ECE1 genes is regulated by ERN1 endoribonuclease, but EDN1 and EDNRB genes preferentially by ERN1 protein kinase. We have also shown that hypoxia enhanced the expression of EDN1, EDNRA, and ECE1 genes and that knockdown of ERN1 signaling enzyme function significantly modified the response of all studied gene expressions to hypoxia. Thus, effect of hypoxia on the expression level of EDN1 and ECE1 genes was significantly or completely reduced in ERN1 knockdown glioma cells since the expression of EDNRA gene was down-regulated under hypoxia. Moreover, hypoxia is induced the expression of EDNRB gene in ERN1 knockdown glioma cells.

Conclusions. Results of this investigation demonstrate that ERN1 knockdown significantly increased the expression of endothelin-1 and its receptors as well as ECE1 genes by different mechanisms and that all studied gene expressions were sensitive to hypoxia. It is possible that hypoxic regulation of the expression of these genes is a result of complex interaction of variable ERN1 related transcription and regulatory factors with HIF1A and possibly contributed to the control of glioma growth.

Open access
Diagnosis and Construction of Speech Coherence Disorders in Schizophasia

Abstract

Introduction: Language disorders defined as schizophasia are one of the key symptoms of schizophrenia, especially in the disorganized form of this psychosis, which is reflected in the description of “loose associations” as one of the core negative symptoms according to P. E. Bleuler. At present, the disruption of text at the level of discourse coherence and syntactic impoverishment at the sentence level are regarded as the linguistic basis of schizophasia. The most often applied tool for clinical assessment of schizophasia is the Scale for the Assessment of Thought, Language, and Communication (TLC) devised by N. Andreasen.

Objective: The paper presents language samples of patients suffering from schizophrenia with a high intensity of schizophasia, but above all, text samples created by speech therapy students, which were supposed to simulate the language pathology of the sick. The aim of the study was to compare these two corps of the text in order to assess how classes on schizophasia affect the understanding of specific language phenomena in the field of text coherence disorders, such as derailment, incoherence, distractible speech, loss of goal.

Material:

1. Text body obtained from two patients suffering from schizophrenia with a high level of schizophasia.

2. Corpus of the text constructed by two students of speech therapy, during academic classes on schizophasia.

Results: This study presents specimens of speech by schizophrenic patients with a high intensity of schizophasia, but first of all text specimens authored by logopedics students, which were intended to simulate the language pathology of patients suffering from schizophasia.

Conclusions: The essence of schizophasic language disorders is apparently the disorders of text coherence at the pragmatic, semantic and syntactic levels. The presented schizophasic utterances constructed by logopedics students are very similar to genuine specimens of schizophasic speech – they are proof of the understanding of what schizophasia is. We may hope that the presentation of language disorders from the texts spoken by patients with schizophrenia, and then the attempt to construct analogous utterances, is conducive to better understanding of the essence of schizophasia, i.e. the disruption of text at the level of building the whole utterance but also at the sentence (phrase) level in the form of syntactic impoverishment.

Open access
The Impact of Emotional Intelligence Level on The Depression Vulnerability

Abstract

Introduction: Recently the issue of emotional intelligence has become a widespread theme of discussion. This review paper is made a contribution to this debate. Discovering of effective predictive and protective factors for depression would have far-reaching consequences for society, science and economy.

Material and Methods: To investigate this issue, we searched articles available in the Google Scholar and PudMed databases under the following terms: emotional intelligence, depression, emotional intelligence and depression for the years 1999-2019. Accessible literature allowed to show basic information of emotional intelligence, detect a system of relationships between emotional intelligence level and depression, and present recommendations.

Results and Discussion: The result of this analysis is a statement that all components of emotional intelligence can be a defense against depression. People with high abilities in regulation their own emotions have large social support, what protect them against depression. The capable managing one’s own and others’ emotions create large and deep interpersonal relationships, what provide more emotional support and tangible assistance during everyday challenges. Stressful life events are among the most powerful predictors of depression, and high level of emotional intelligence enable to cope with them more effectively.

Conclusions: The present text will constitute an impulse to explore this theme more. Moreover, there is a recommendation for researchers to create more effective and simplified tests for examining the level of emotional intelligence in case of spreading them much more and use them in a routine psychiatric practice. A confirmation of the title hypothesis can stand a key to struggle with depression.

Open access