Organic dyes are widely used in many industries (textiles, food, cosmetics, medicine and biology). These plants produce wastewater containing dyes. Even small amounts of dyes can cause a strong colour of wastewater. Therefore, it is very important to effectively remove residues of these pollutants from the wastewater, before discharging them into the environment. The sorption process is one of the methods used to remove dyes. However this method is often unprofitable economically in comparison with other dye removal processes, due to the high cost of commercial sorbents. Therefore, research is currently conducted in order to find waste materials that can be used as sorbents. The static sorption process of two dyes were carried out (Acid Red 18 and Acid Green 16) with the use of dried excess sludge. The activated sludge (excess) came from a municipal sewage treatment plant that purifies wastewater from carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. During the study the most favourable pH of the process and the contact time of the sorbent with the dyes were determined. It was observed that for both dyes the highest effectiveness of dye removal was obtained at pH = 2. The most favourable contact time was equal to 60 and 180 minutes for Acid Red 18 and Acid Green 16 respectively. In addition, in order to establish process parameters, a different models of sorption isotherm was examined. The studies showed that the sorption capacity (calculated based on Langmuir model) was much higher in the case of Acid Green 16 (qm = 434.8 mg/g) than for Acid Red 18 (qm = 109.9 mg/g). The experiments to evaluate the effect of pH, contact time on the process effectiveness and to determine the sorption isotherm were conducted at 293.15 K.
Two field trials were carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ilorin in the 2012 and 2014 planting seasons to find out the effeciency of Trichoderma harzianum as a bio-control agent in controlling root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in two pepper varieties (F1 Nikita and Gianfranco Fuscello). A 2 × 2 factorial design fitted into a randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used with 5 replications. The T. harzianum filtrate significantly increased plant height, number of leaves, and yield. The control showed higher root galling and soil nematode population. Varietal differences showed that F1 Nikita performed significantly better than G. Fuscello. The combination of Trichoderma and F1 Nikita appears effective for managing root-knot nematodes.
Piotr Manczarski, Krystyna Lelicińska-Serafin and Anna Rolewicz-Kalińska
The objective of the study is research on a biofilter existing at a mechanical-biological waste treatment plant in Radom. The paper presents results of research on the filling of the analysed biofilter (moisture, organic matter content, nutrient content, pH, grain size composition, and equivalent diameter), process gases (temperature, humidity and pH, concentrations of the main pollutants - ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, volatile organic compounds, acetic acid, ethanol) and operational parameters (flow rate, height of the biofilter layer, surface load, gas residence time in the filter bed). Irregularities were observed related to biofiltration efficiency, particularly resulting from improperly selected filling material and improper biofilter operation. The technological research permitted the identification of problems and determination of the requirement of performing necessary operational changes. Further works will involve the design, manufacture, and installation of an integrated biofilter with two-stage gas purification process (a classic biofilter and a semi-permeable membrane).
Zidi Anissa, Menad Ahmed, Senoussi Mohamed Mourad and Zaidi Kenza
The aquatic ecosystem of the Meskiana Valley (wilaya of Oum El Bouaghi) covers a large area with a permanent flow and a semi-arid climate characterized by a strong evapotranspiration. In order to determine the Physico-chemical quality, pollution and salinity of the water of the river of Meskiana and more particularly in its downstream part which is exposed to wastewater discharges, analyses were carried out at the level of three sampling points: witness, the upstream (before spill), downstream (after spill)). In order to prevent the risk of alkalization and salinization of soil, the sodium absorption rate (SAR) and the percentage of sodium were determined and represented on the Wilcox and Riverside diagram. The high concentrations of polluting chemical elements and excessive salinity obtained at the downstream site show a high risk of pollution and salinization.
The present work examines the influence of the leaching conditions on the release of various chemical elements from a cementitious material obtained by solidification of an industrial waste rejection of Algeria. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis SEM-EDX analyses were employed to characterize the waste and the stabilized/solidified materials. Than several formulations were prepared with different percent of waste ranging from 0 % to 30 %. To evaluate the influence of leaching conditions on the release of chemical ions (Zn2+, Pb2+, Cl-, Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, K+ and SO42−) contained in the stabilized and solidified materials, the Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC), the Pore Water (PW) and Monolith Leaching Tests (MLT) have been carried out. The leaching tests (ANC, PW and MLT) have shown a low metal leachability. However, the lowest released amount was observed for the MLT.
Zsolt Székely-Varga, Timea Hitter Buru, Alex-Peter Cotoz, Roxana Alexandra Sabo and Maria Cantor
This paper presents the behaviour of five hyacinth varieties: ‘City of Haarlem’, ‘Blue Jacket’, ‘Miss Saigon’, ‘Jan Boss’, and ‘Double Prince of Love’ in forced culture under the influence of different culture substrates. For this purpose, the following parameters were monitored concerning the main characteristics: number of flowers from inflorescence, length of stem flower, earliness of flowering period, and the flowers’ blooming period. The results of this work show that in culture substrate garden soil and sand (1:1) the best results were obtained regarding the length of the floral stem, number of flowers from inflorescence, and flowering period, and less favourable results were obtained for bloom precocity.
In Europe the monitoring of lakes with regard to benthic diatoms is still conducted in line with the European Water Framework Directive. Ribbon lakes are a special case as extremely steep slopes of the lake basin cause their littoral zone to be narrow. The Durowskie ribbon lake was chosen as a model for the assessment of the ecological status of waters based on its Diatom Index. Given its use in recreation, it is under heavy anthropogenic pressure. Physicochemical and biological parameters were monitored in the peak of the vegetational season (July, August) between 2010 and 2018 at 12 varied littoral sites across the full length of the shoreline. This long-term analysis of the Diatom Index, despite showing an improvement in the quality of water, demonstrated the ecological state of Lake Durowskie to be weak (southern, deep part) to moderate (north, shallow part). The taxonomic structure of diatoms (referral and indicator taxa) in phytobenthos communities allowed to show the changes in physicochemical parameters of the environment such as pH, oxygen dissolved in water and its trophic status. Research results are shown in relation to the anthropogenic changes to the lake’s direct catchment area and the results of the physicochemical monitoring of waters.
Michaela Tokarčíková, Jana Seidlerová, Oldřich Motyka and Mirka Šafaříková
Biochar produced from fermentation residue of maize hybrid was used in untreated form as a sorbent for the removal of Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solution. The capability of biochar to immobilized ions was investigated by leaching test. Equilibrium between biochar sample and studied elements in solution was reached at a contact time 30 min for Zn(II) and 90 min for Pb(II) and Cd(II). The experimental data were described by pseudofirst-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, two- and three-parameter isotherms in non-linear form. The maximum sorption capacity achieved was 30.07 mg·g−1 in the case of Cd(II) ions, 99.44 mg·g−1 in the case of Pb(II) and 40.18 in the case of Zn(II). Biochar developed for this study is comparable to conventional biochar, low cost, non-toxic and experimental results show that is a suitable and efficient sorbent for Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) removal from aqueous solutions.
The studies on the marine and freshwater testate amoebae of the Bulgarian Black Sea littoral and some related coastal brackish lakes are briefly reviewed. So far, a total of 184 species and subspecies of testate amoebae from 18 families and 45 genera from orders of Arcellinida and Euglyphida were published in national and international journals. The underground waters of the Bulgarian marine sand supralittoral are better studied than the related continental lakes. A total of about 45 species of marine interstitial testate amoebae are known, so far, and a big part of them were for the first time described from the Black Sea littoral. It’s interesting to note the presence in the marine underground waters of the Black Sea littoral of many freshwater testate amoebae also, considered by us as eurybionts. That is due of the low and variable salinity of the littoral Black Sea waters during the year. The presence of some psammobiotic testate amoebae as Psammonobiotus lineare and Corythionella georgiana in some related brackish lakes is also of ecological interest. The general conclusion of the present synthesis is that the testate amoebae fauna of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast and the related with it many brackish and freshwater littoral lakes is few known yet and need more active researches.
Issam Bouchahdane, Mohamed Boukhemza, Karim Souttou and Arezki Derridj
Knowledge and study of breeding birds’ biology is essential to understand the dynamic, assess productivity and identify threats. The population of booted eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus) was studied during three consecutive breeding seasons (2013−2015) in the Chettabah forest. Each year, arrivals of Booted eagles are recorded during March (15 individuals in 2013, 12 in 2014 and 11 in 2015). For the three years of study, the mean breeding pair’s density was 1.23 ± 0.153/km2, incubation period ranged from 33 to 38 days, whilst the frequency distribution of clutch size was 67.6% for 2 eggs, 27% for 1 and 5.4% for 3. Amongst the 63 eggs monitored, 55 hatched. No significant variation in hatching rate was observed during the 3 years (90% in 2013, 76.19% in 2014 and 84% in 2015). The comparison of breeding parameters with those reported in Spain showed a noticeable similarity. Further investigations should be conducted to improve the provision of information to support sound management interventions of this North African population.