Over decades human well-being has recognized from ecosystems, not only through material goods but also through nonmaterial assets namely cultural ecosystem services (CES). Regardless of increasing Ecosystem Services (ES) research over the last decade, cultural services assessment still remains neglected and is mainly limited to marketable services such as recreation and ecotourism. Obvious challenges in standardizing definitions and measurement units have brought about numerous difficulties in accounting cultural services and specific related indicators in decision-making processes. In that regard, the current review intends to create a reference list of CES categories and related measurement units with commonly used indicators. To put it another way, we analysis 80 publications to identify the most common CES indicators using in mapping various categories of CES approaches. Results prove that there are various methods can be used in assessing CES categories, whereas we found 57 indicators can be used for that and most of these indicators can be utilized in urban planning context as spatial indicators. Moreover, it is obvious that almost the same indicators can be used in evaluating most CES categories. For instance, in case of recreation and tourism indicators almost 50 % of all collected indicators can be used for mapping it, on the contrary, in case of spiritual and religious values. In conclusion, while there are various mapping methods of CES and different indicators, most of CES categories have relatively ignored by the planner and decision-makers such as education and inspirational values. Therefore, we recommend the use of the collected indicators and relevant measurement units in assessing neglected values in future research.
Aldo Alvarez-Risco, Marc A. Rosen and Shyla Del-Aguila-Arcentales
The present study shows the regulatory proposal related to plastic by the Peruvian government and also, the previous initiatives are described so that it can be taken as a reference for the successful implementation in other countries, taking into account the regulatory and business aspects at the same time.
The endeavors to preserve the forest in Bali cannot be isolated from the existence of local wisdom. Customary law, as a decision of Hindu religious leaders in Bali, is one of the local wisdoms which has been maintained by the society. This study examined the values of local wisdom held by indigenous people and reviewed the preservation of forests from a Hindu perspective. This research was conducted in three villages in Bali, namely Tenganan Village, Manggis Sari Village, and Sangeh Village. The residents of these villages believed that forest is a sacred area which must be maintained and preserved properly.
Dongqin Li, Yili Zhang, Peng Li, Jingjing Dai and Guohuan Li
As a type of natural energy resource, wind power is used in the modern implementation of wind-assisted technologies as a method for reducing the fuel consumption and environmental pollution of ocean-going ships. In order to promote the full usage of ocean wind energy for cargo ships, an innovative type of ship propulsion-assisted wing sail is proposed in this paper. The propulsion efficiency of this new wing sail can be increased by enlarging its area in both the transverse and vertical directions in good weather conditions, and it can be folded up automatically in poor weather conditions, improving the sailing safety of the ship. The sail parameters relating to the gaps and rotation angles between different parts of the wing sail are compared, and the values giving the best aerodynamic performance are identified using CFD simulation technology. The results for the lift and drag coefficients for the new wing sail at different attack angles are also compared with those of traditional aerofoil sails, including an arc-shaped rigid sail and a variable-camber sail proposed in 2015. From the viewpoint of the sailing performance of the vessel, our results demonstrate that this new type of wing sail has good aerodynamic performance and can reduce fuel costs for commercial vessels.
Andrzej Tomporowski, Ali Al-Zubiedy, Józef Flizikowski, Weronika Kruszelnicka, Patrycja Bałdowska-Witos and Jacek Rudnicki
The design of a floating, innovative device for river water aeration and conversion of mechanical energy to electrical energy required the analysis of a number of geometrical and dynamic features. Such an analysis may be carried out on the basis of existing methods of numerical fluid mechanics. Models of pressures, forces and torques characteristic for the conversion of watercourse energy were developed for two basic concepts of innovation. These pressures, forces and torques were calculated, designed, and experimentally determined for the variable geometric form and dimensions of the designed working elements of the innovative roller-blade turbine rotor.
Adam Bogacz, Maria Andrzejczak, Klara Tomaszewska and Magda Podlaska
Drainage and peat extraction may have a negative impact on existing hydrological conditions and, consequently, on the conditions of wetland ecosystems. The aim of this study was to assess human impact on the studied Trzcińskie Mokradła Peatland by comparing the concentrations and trace element (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni) pools in the study area (extracted vs. non-extracted areas of peatland). The concentration of trace elements in organic soils and their pools were analysed in relation to their depth in the soil profiles, content of organic matter, soil pH values and the degree of decomposition of organic materials (peat, mursh). Fifteen soil profiles (90 samples) were examined. The total soil elements content was determined after digestion in a mixture of HCl+HNO3. The element pools were calculated and expressed in g m−2 of soil in 0–30 cm and 30–50 cm layers. Soils showed acidic or slightly acidic reactions. The high concentrations of Pb and Zn were mainly observed in the upper horizons. The deeper layers enriched with mineral fractions were also enriched in metals like Cr and Ni.
The aim of this study is to differentiate old-field plant communities along the abandonment time and/or environmental gradient in the landscape surrounded villages with established Czech settlers in Romanian Banat area conserving traditional agriculture, and to identify site factors which cause plant diversity of particular vegetation types. Study area: Wider territory centered by the village Sfânta Elena, southern Romania ((44°40’ N; 21°43’ E). Methods: We collected 97 phytosociological relevés covered the same number of old-fields in the area and the following habitat parameters were measured: soil pH, available phosphorus, total carbon and nitrogen, Heat Load Index. Software TURBOVEG / JUICE was used to collect and elaborate the data set of relevés. Old-field vegetation was classified into five basic plant communities using TWINSPAN (all the botanical material includes 291 plant species). For each community, we detected diagnostic species according to their fidelity index. The presence of mowing, grazing or burning was registered for recorded stands. Ecological preferences of each community were examined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Vegetation-environment relationships were analysed using ordination method – Cannonical correspondence analysis (CCA) in CANOCO for Windows (version 4.5) to find the main variability gradients within the dataset. Scatter plot relationships between variables were constructed. Main results and conclusions: Dependence of number of species (alpha diversity) on the abandoned field’s age exhibits an unimodal shape of this relationship with the maximum peak of species diversity in plant stands aged approximately 13 years. The most importnat ecological factors and/or type of management in the relationship to the old-field plant composition show the following significance order: available phosphorus content in the soil (P), total nitrogen content in the soil (N), presence of burning, length of abandonment (old-field age), carbon/nitrogen ratio in the soil (C/N). Other parameters (grazing, mowing, zero management) do not demonstrate effective impact according to our dataset and seem to be equal to the absence of burning.
Jan Prostředník, Vítězslav Kuželka, Lenka Kovačiková and Jan Novák
Archaeological research in the area of the chateau park uncovered the relic of the Gothic church of St. Elisabeth, dated to the second half of the 13th century. It is a single-nave building with a rectangular finish (length 25 m, boat width 13 m, presbytery width 10.5 m). The church probably had an older predecessor - a wooden structure on a stone foundation, dating from the mid-13th century. At the same time, the church site was a burial place: a grave of a young woman and a 1.5-year-old child, dated 13th/14th century were found outside the presbytery wall. In the presbytery, there were 3 graves of men dating back to the 14th century. It is very likely that these are the Lords of the Wallenstein family. Archaeological research in graves in the Church of St. Elisabeth unearthed a small collection of animal bone remains. The occurrence of bones of young and mature cattle and domestic fowls, which are abundant in the archaeozoological assemblage, indicates the prevailing meat consumption of these animals. The butchering marks on their bones document removal of meat from the carcasses.
Zidi Anissa, Menad Ahmed, Senoussi Mohamed Mourad and Zaidi Kenza
The aquatic ecosystem of the Meskiana Valley (wilaya of Oum El Bouaghi) covers a large area with a permanent flow and a semi-arid climate characterized by a strong evapotranspiration. In order to determine the Physico-chemical quality, pollution and salinity of the water of the river of Meskiana and more particularly in its downstream part which is exposed to wastewater discharges, analyses were carried out at the level of three sampling points: witness, the upstream (before spill), downstream (after spill)). In order to prevent the risk of alkalization and salinization of soil, the sodium absorption rate (SAR) and the percentage of sodium were determined and represented on the Wilcox and Riverside diagram. The high concentrations of polluting chemical elements and excessive salinity obtained at the downstream site show a high risk of pollution and salinization.