The purpose of this study is to analyze economic reforms conducted in Ukraine during the period of the state’s independence. And also to identify, with the help of scientific tools – system analysis, management problems in the economy, their diagnosis, identification of the consequences that led to these problems, and ways development (at conceptual level) for their solving. The authors of the article proposed the concept of reforms in Ukraine. At the heart of the concept is the administrative reform aimed at creating organizational conditions under which corruption in power is almost completely neutralized. It is argued that such conditions are created by ensuring transparency, introduction of new information technologies, and minimizing the proportion of the so-called “human factor”. Within the framework of the innovative project (model) of economic management, it is envisaged to redistribute central power between the central apparatus of economic management, local authorities and the non-state sector.
The purpose of this article is to explore the subject of applying to the European Court of Human Rights in tax cases, the place of decisions of the European Court of Human Rights in the system of sources of tax law, the problems arising from the application of ECtHR decisions by Ukrainian courts in tax cases. The research was carried out using formal-dogmatic, system-structural, comparative-legal, historical and other methods of scientific cognition. The author concludes that it is important to use the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights to resolve public law disputes, the subject of which is public finances. After all, the Ukrainian tax system and tax legislation, the tax status of taxpayers and tax authorities should be based on the fundamental principles enshrined in the Convention and which have repeatedly been systematically interpreted in the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights.
Job polarization simply refers to the decline or disappearance of employment in middle skill occupations. Recent literature focuses on this phenomenon as a source of rising income inequality in countries. The hypothesis is that growth in employment over the last decades has favoured jobs at the low and high skill occupations with declines in employment shares in the middle of the distribution. First, this paper seeks to investigate whether labour polarization occurs in Central and Eastern European countries. Secondly, the paper assesses the role of technology on employment in the Central and Eastern European countries. Using employment shares and a cointegrated panel autoregressive distributed lag model, the paper presents comprehensive results on labour polarization and the impact of technology on employment in the labour markets of the Central and Eastern European countries. The results show positive impact of technology on high skill employment while negative on low and middle skill employment in the long-run. The study finds that though middle skill employment shares declined, there is no clear case of a U-shape employment distribution to indicate labour polarization.
As mediation and its support across the European Union have been growing, we can assume that the public is better aware of this option of dispute resolution. The law acquaintance with the focus on mediation has not been studied extensively, although the identification of the current state is crucial for formulating the effective strategies for its broader use. The aim of this paper based on the quantitative survey on a representative sample in the Czech Republic is to examine the mediation awareness and its differences across individual characteristics. The statistical analysis identifies very low awareness of mediation and its aspects. Moreover, this knowledge is higher among people with higher education, among middle-aged people and older people living in bigger municipalities. Based on the findings, the authors suggest that targeted campaigns organised by the state should be conducted through the channels accessible to the sociodemographic groups with lower awareness of mediation.
Czech workers’ compensation is “exemplified” by the adoption of the Worker’s Accident Insurance Act in 2006, four deferments of its effective date and then complete annulment of the Act. A temporary settlement aimed at resolving the incompatibility of the communist model of workers’ compensation for work accidents and occupational illnesses with the transition to a market economy after 1989 involved the implementation of statutory employer liability insurance for work accidents and occupational illnesses, outsourced to two private insurance companies; the current Czech government does not seem to have a know how to deal with it. The objective of this paper is primarily to advise the government using primarily the formulation and comparison of four basic social workers’ compensation models and furthermore considering the existing sickness, pension and health insurance systems. The choice of a social model is namely a matter of public choice, but intensive lobbying also constitutes part of these processes. The analyses result in a recommendation to “dissolve” the statutory employer liability insurance into a jointly collected social insurance contribution for sickness and pension insurance, and partly to transform the current accident benefits into increased sickness and pension benefit assessments and partly to cancel them.
The aim of this paper is to establish the repertoire and distribution of verbal and adverbial exponents of epistemic modality in English- and Polish-language judgments passed by the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU) and non-translated judgments passed by the Supreme Court of Poland (SN). The study applies a model for categorizing exponents of epistemicity with regard to their (i) level (high-, medium- and low-level of certainty, necessity or possibility expressed by the markers; primary dimension), (ii) perspective (own vs. reported perspective), (iii) opinion (based either on facts or beliefs) and (iv) time (the embedding of epistemic markers in sentences relating to the past, present or future) (contextual dimensions). It examines the degree of intra-generic convergence of translated EU judgments and non-translated national judgments in terms of the employment of epistemic markers, as well as the degree of authoritativeness of judicial argumentation, and determines whether the frequent use of epistemic markers constitutes a generic feature of judgments. The research material consists of a parallel corpus of English- and Polish-language versions of 200 EU judgments and a corpus of 200 non-translated domestic judgments. The results point to the high salience and differing patterns of use of epistemic markers in both EU and national judgments. The frequent use of high-level epistemic markers boosts the authoritativeness of judicial reasoning.
Corrigenda issued by international organizations provide a most relevant source for the analysis of translation errors and what they reveal about institutional translation quality control and correction processes. This study examines corrigenda published in three settings (the European Union institutions involved in law-making, the United Nations and the World Trade Organization) in three years over a decade: 2005, 2010 and 2015. It reviews the procedures used to introduce translation corrections in these institutions before presenting the results of the quantitative and qualitative analysis of translation-triggered corrigenda in two target languages, French and Spanish, per setting, year, genre, error type and severity. A distinction is made between content reformulation corrections and minor formal corrections for the comparison of diachronic changes and semantic impact levels of corrected errors between the institutions considered. The findings confirm that minor formal errors may have meaning-distorting effects that are as serious as content reformulation errors; when this is not the case, they rarely trigger single-correction corrigenda. The UN recourse to “reissues for technical reasons” for translation corrections and the growing number of corrigenda to EU legal acts and their implications for translation quality assurance and legal certainty are further contextualized and discussed drawing on both corpus analysis and consultations with institutional informants.
This paper applies a structured legal-linguistic profiling approach to EU “staff representation bodies” as a way to access domains that lie behind the public face of EU institutions and their texts concerning translation, language and terminology. The study commences with a legal-linguistic analysis of EU texts for references to “staff”, “staff representation” and “employment” in order to identify specific texts and bodies of relevance to the study. This approach leads to two broad categories: staff committees and trade unions. Information is sought from EU institutions about these bodies and their translation and language arrangements, and a list is made of websites available to the general public. These sites are then examined as part of the legal-linguistic profiling approach.