Shadiya Mohamed S. Baqutayan, Aini Suzana Ariffin, Magda Ismail A. Mohsin and Akbariah Mohd Mahdzir
Waqf plays a very important role in Muslim societies. It has been the main source for various public services provided to communities. It has been marginalized as a mere charity, although it has historically been successful in producing sustainable income and reducing poverty levels in Muslim countries. Traditionally, the creation of Waqf is inculcated in Muslims’ culture, and included all walks of life. It has also contributed to the service of man in various areas of development. Nonetheless, in modern times, Waqf has seen a declining role, which raises a number of questions as to what factors actually led to an earlier growth of Waqf, and what was the factor associated with its later decline. This review propagates a historical narrative of Waqf, highlighting the reasons for its decline and the need for reform. The paper concludes that if Muslims have good governments that can manage the funds are transparent, reformulates the laws governing Waqf, and design an integrated network of sciences to monitor issues and problems; they can realistically revive the practice of Waqf. The proper management and disbursement of Waqf can become a great source of revenue for the Ummah.
This paper describes advantages of using computers in teaching, but also problems that occur, as well as possibilities for their elimination. The main goal of the research is the formation of images which show the use of computers in higher education. The paper presents the results of a survey conducted among students of the Faculty of Education in Sombor (Serbia) about the use of computers in teaching. A sample of 126 respondents comprises students of the last year of all study programs. The results show that students and professors have a positive attitude about using computers in education and knowledge dissemination through computers. Most of them think that teachers have mastered basic computer knowledge, but give priority to teachers who know how to work with a computer, as well as to younger teachers. Students believe that many barriers occur during the use of computers, among which the most important is the inaccessibility of technical equipment. All barriers can be overcome through useful and practical computer seminars.
Bruna Papa and Ervin Demo
Albanian higher education sector has undergone various changes in the last years. Such changes have brought different implication and challenges for higher education institutions. HEIs need to find new and innovative ways to be able to respond properly and play their role in the society. This paper aims to provide an evaluation of the staus quo of 5 public higher education instituions, that took part in the study, in regard to 6 aspects of the entrepreneurial university model.Interviews were conducted using HEInnovate tool as a theoretical guideline and questions were asked by being grouped in 6 categories: on aspects such as governance and lidership, internationalization, knowledge exchange, human and financial resources, entrepreneurial education and start up support and measures, were conducted in order to have a general overview and identify potential areas of improvement. Entrepreneurship needs to be supported and formilazed by the top lidership and effective organizational structure that promotes entrepreneurshop at all levels of the institution, financial stream needs to be diversified, blended learning needs to be encourgaed and promoted and public HEIs need to increase their international cooperation and presence. The study shows that HEIs need to implement new practies in order to better be prepared to face the current and future challenges. The findings and recommendation can be used to present measures to be undertaken both at institutional level of HEIs and at the level of policy makers in Albania.
A number of methods and techniques for determining “effective” solutions for multiple objective linear programming problems (MPP) have been developed. In this study, we will present two simple methods for determining an efficient solution for a MPP that reducing the given problem to a one-objective linear programming problem. One of these methods falls under the category of methods of weighted metrics, and the other is an approach similar to the ε- constraint method. The solutions determined by the two methods are not only effective and are found on the Pareto frontier, but are also “the best” in terms of distance to the optimal solutions for all objective function from the MPP. Obviously, besides the optimal solutions of linear programming problems in which we take each objective function, we can also consider the ideal point and Nadir point, in order to take into account all the notions that have been introduced to provide a solution to this problem
Ibrahim Nji Ngouhouo and Samuel Honoré Ntavoua
The main objective of this research is to locate channels through which public investment can be forwarded in order to impact economic growth in the CEMAC sub-region. To achieve this goal, a dynamic generalized method of moments (GMM) and the two-stage least squares (TSLS) methods have been applied. Data to test our two hypotheses were collected from various sources. The results have shown that there effectively exist significant direct and indirect effects of public investment on economic growth. We also discovered that export and employment are being considered as the last shackles of the chain. To that effect, it is recommended to the CEMAC authorities to grant more interest to these variables during the elaboration of public investment policies.