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Mirela Metushaj

Abstract

The aim of this study is to indicate the influence of the role of the Great Powers in the Western Balcans, in this region of contrasts, of many partial, which did not have an easy cohabitation between them, for various reasons, as shown in history from numerous wars. Being in a very interesting part of the western balcans even Albania, my country had its sad history over decades. Western Balcans, despite being geographically distant from many of the great powers, has always attreacted their attention, becoming a battling and disputable terrain by the grat international actors, especially for putting political ideologies that would govern this part of the peninsula. Why does the Weatern Balcans rise so much interest in the international arena?

Open access

Jirada Praebaisri and Koompong Noobanjong

Abstract

This research has studied Wat Poramaiyigawas with the objective to study Mon identity in Siam context through Buddhist architecture during the transition from Old to New Siam. The essence of this research is set upon the concept of Stuart Hall's Representation Theory which indicates that architecture is constructed with the purpose to express the creator's concept, with the method of studying related historical information and physical field study. Wat Poramaiyigawas had been abandoned before it was restored by the Mon immigrants in Thonburi Kingdom until it was later sponsored by Siamese aristocrats for major reconstruction. During the social transition from a conservative society to a modern one which had the Western world as the prototype, temple reconstruction or building of the Mon the subordinates of Siam where changes were taking place, the Mon had to follow Siamese aristocrats' view showing not only for the purpose of ideological significance of their belief or Buddhist function, but also was the venue for creating the ideological and conceptual meaning which were created symbolically through art and architecture according to views reflecting identity of the creator in that period than Mon people who were the real users.

Open access

Virginia Navajas Romero, Juan Antonio Jimber del Río and José Carlos Casas-Rosal

Abstract

The main objective of this article is to analyze the degree of satisfaction of European Union workers, especially those working in the hotel and restaurant sector. The study is based on two phases: the first analyzes the number of workers in the EU between 2006 and 2017; a dynamic model for predicting the number of people working in hotels and restaurants has been created. In order to predict the number of workers in the studied sector, a dynamic model has been created based on a classical series estimation methodology. In the second phase, this study aims to measure the degree of satisfaction of these workers and the causes that affect them. A univariate and bivariate analysis has been used to describe satisfaction among hotel and restaurant workers and the relationship between this satisfaction and their working conditions. From the special characteristics observed in this sector, it can be deduced that the level of satisfaction expressed by the working conditions of the worker is significantly lower in the hotel and restaurant sector.

Open access

Edo Sherifi

Abstract

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) (APA). Case Study of autistic child D.S. treated with (IEP) program and therapeutic methods. Direct observation of the vertical grid with the child treated with (IEP) program and professional techniques was used for the realization of the study, semi-structured interviews with actors and factors that have access to autistic children. Focus group with field specialists who create a multidisciplinary team. Child testing with the SON-R test proved that the age of the trained child increased 4 years. The non-exercising child's mental age increased only 7 months (2.5-3.2) years. Achievements of an autistic child treated with the Individualized Education Program, (IEP-1+IEP-2+IEP- 3 in the spheres exercised: The child has made progress in the psychomotor skills (learning). Results: (IEP-1-15%); (IEP-2-45%); (IEP-3-80%). Linguistic skills has not progressed, because it has serious brain damage in the part of communicative ability; the results in this sphere are: IEP-1-0%; IEP-2-5%; IEP-3-10%. The achievements of the child in the social sphere are: IEP-1-35%; IEP-2-45%; IEP-3-75%. Psychological treatment of autistic child with Individualized Education Program (IEP) and therapeutic methods resulted in success story.

Open access

Tengku Aizan Hamid, Sumara Masood Ul Hassan, Sharifah Azizah Haron and Rahimah Ibrahim

Abstract

The persistent increase in longevity has impelled social scientists to concentrate on the factors that can improve later life health and wellbeing. Extant literature indicates that filial responsibility, self-esteem, emotional regulation, attachment, parent-adult child relationship quality and religiosity are among those contributing factors for elderly subjective wellbeing. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize available evidence regarding the psychosocial determinants of elderly subjective wellbeing. Google Scholar, Science Direct and PubMed were searched for potentially relevant articles published from 2011 to 2017. Eighteen out of 216 full-text papers met the inclusion criteria and were critically appraised. The internal validity and quality of selected studies were assessed using STROBE and SIGN checklists. The findings of the current review suggest that filial responsibility, emotional regulation, self-esteem, attachment, and parent-adult child relationship quality were consistent determinants of elderly wellbeing; whereas findings on religiosity were equivocal. Further, self-esteem and emotional regulation emerged as significant cognitive-emotional underlying factors for the association between family relations and elderly wellbeing. In conclusion, despite methodological limitations of selected studies, this review was able to identify a number of psychosocial determinants of elderly subjective wellbeing. A comprehensive knowledge of these determining factors can contribute to a better understanding of empirical connections and identification of gaps in literature as well as directions for future studies.

Open access

Cao Thu Hang

Abstract

Protecting employee rights and interests is the issue attracted attention of related parties in Vietnam. It includes a lot of contents. The article deals with some basic contents such as salary, working time and labor safety and hygiene. In the past years, besides the achievements, the protection of employee rights and interests in Vietnamese enterprises has some limitations. In some enterprises, the minimum wage has not met the demand, the real income of employees is low while working time is relatively high and labor safety and hygiene are not ensured. This is due to many reasons, such as: firstly, most Vietnamese enterprises are small and medium ones, their economic potential is not strong enough to be able to good equipment for employees; secondly, the employees themselves are not aware of their rights and interests as well as are also under pressure to survive; thirdly, it is the problem of profit. Therefore, it is necessary to adjust both the awareness and policies to make sure the harmony between employees, enterprises and society.

Open access

Luqman H. Zainuri

Abstract

Political transition from autocracy to democracy may produce paradoxes. Political succession in Indonesia may be the case in point. The anxiety over massive demonstration, riots and violence often over shadow political successions at the local, regional as well as national level support the above proposition. This article represents a research-based report on one of the most controversial collective violence relates to the monetary crisis 1997-1998 which brought the termination of autocratic era of Soeharto’s regime in May 1998. Since February 1998, in the Regency of Banyuwangi broke out a spiral collective action among the people. Hundreds of local-religious teachers are reportedly to have been killed by an undercover actors called “ninja.” All these phenomena have led to unanswered questions why the massacre against they the Master of Sihir is justified? What do they perceive of the violence? Who did it and how? Who, why and how they do it. As the violence continues almost throughout the year, the report is worth delivering. The aim of this article is to provide a research-based theoretical answers to the question of the nature of violence, the actors, the targets, and modus operandi of the violence. The research was conducted from 2002 to 2005 in the Regency of Banyuwangi and the surrounding areas. The method by which the research was exploratory in kind. Data was collected through snow balling technique while the perspective of the analysis is political sociology. The result shows hundreds of villagers have become victims of the violence most of whom, are village dwellers who are alleged the Master of Sihir. Most of the actors of the violence, if not all, are neighbours who share the believe that magic is benevolent while at the same time is malevolent. Accordingly, they perceive of those who were named the Master of Sihir paradoxically as foe and friend at the sane time. The violence vary degree starting from destruction of house or property, social isolation, expel from the village, and assassination. In conclusion, the chaotic political transition has given a room for the society to produce and reproduce violence. People may say that any violence is against human rights but, for this people, not to the Master of Sihir. For them, violation against the Master of Sihir is socially and politically justified, fair and acceptable.

Open access

Giovanni E. Reyes, Mark Govers and Dirk Ruwaard

Abstract

The main aim of this research is to present a theoretical review regarding the theory of social inclusion and social leverage. In this research, four fundamental and complementary approaches are taken into account: (i) the theory of growing capacities and increasing opportunities as essential aspects of Amartya Sen's theory of human development; (ii) the perspective and factors of the current process of globalization; (iii) Douglass North's neoinstitutionalist approach to social and political conditions; and (iv) foundations of the legitimacy theory from Jürgen Habermas. These considerations made possible a more comprehensive consideration that goes beyond the strictly economic elements, to complement the standpoint with other elements, including those of public policy analysis.

Open access

Rachel Reckinger and Christian Wille

Abstract

Given the current call for interdisciplinarity, we reflect on pragmatic methodological implementations of collaborative research – by drawing on empirical evidence from two large-scale cross-disciplinary research projects and by theoretically framing them in trilingual contexts (German, French, and English). These are two major innovations compared to the existing body of literature in this domain. Our empirical analysis shows that multi-, inter- or trans-disciplinary collaboration is an oscillating process along a spectrum of cross-disciplinarity – spanning additive, converging and synthesizing work patterns, i.e. multi-, inter-, and transdisciplinarity. Such an umbrella-term avoids the common amalgamation of ‘interdisciplinarity’ as the overarching category (cross-disciplinarity of whatever form) and one of the relevant subcategories (the specific work form that a research team chooses). Concretely, if the majority of methods are developed through communal negotiation processes, then a truly interdisciplinary analysis of research results can only be guaranteed through recursive self-reflexive loops. Initial research questions may still be additive and interactions can oscillate during the project process between addition und tentative convergence. We label this process situative interdisciplinarity. Multi-, inter- and transdisciplinarity are thus subsumed as a processual entity: flexible, possibly hybrid subforms of cross-disciplinarity. It needs constant reactivation, framing, timing and mediation by project managers. The major challenge lies in the collaborative transfer of concepts, theories, methods and research subjects. This transfer requires translation, explication and transposition of the various disciplinary ‘languages’ and can only be converged in an open-minded, team-oriented and reflexive work environment.