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Peter Koerver Schmidt

Abstract

The article analyzes whether the investment in a private equity fund may create a permanent establishment (PE) for foreign investors. The analysis is divided into two main parts, as the question of creating a PE for the foreign investors is considered with respect to both the main PE rule and the agency PE rule. The amendments to the PE definition prescribed in the OECD/G20 BEPS report on Action 7, and incorporated into the 2017 version of the OECD Model with Commentary, are taken into consideration. It is concluded that the final outcome depends on the specific setup of the private equity fund at hand and that some degree of uncertainty may often remain. Moreover, the recent amendments to the PE definition do not appear to have reduced this uncertainty—rather the contrary.

Open access

Troy L. Harris

Abstract

The early eighteenth-century English ecclesiastical courts are a case study in the secularization of a legal system. As demonstrated elsewhere, the courts were very busy. And yet the theoretical justification for their jurisdiction was very much a matter of debate throughout the period, with divine-right and voluntaristic conceptions vying for precedence. Placed in this context, the King’s Bench decision in Middleton v Crofts (1736) represented an important step in the direction of limiting the reach of ecclesiastical jurisdiction, and did so on grounds that undermined divine-right justifications of the ecclesiastical court system as a whole.

Open access

Noornajihan Jaafar, Nurul Asia Fasehah Muhamad, Ab. Halim Tamuri, Azhar Haji Ahmad, Nur Hanani Hussin, Mohd Khamal Md. Daud and Maziahtusima Ishak

Abstract

The role of Islamic education teacher (IET) as society change agent (SCA) requires a strong internal motivation factor. It begins with confidence in self-ability i.e. self-efficacy (SE) in implementing the trust given to them. This study aims to assess the relationship between SE ITE in Malaysia with the role of SCA in society. This quantitative study has involved 1382 IETs in Malaysia. The sampling technique used was cluster sampling and based on random sample selection. The findings show that the SE level of ITE is at high level. But the role of IET as SCA is at less satisfactory level. Furthermore, SE has been identified to have a significant relationship with IET’s role as SCA but was at weak level. The implication is, the study finds that the focus should be on restoring ITE’s mindset about the community’s work and developing the ummah, as well as the 21st century teaching and learning (T&L) skills. In fact, IET needs to be given practical exposure to engage in society through NGOs, surau, mosques, da’wah organization and government agencies.

Open access

Amnaj Panhirun, Boonchan Sisan, Pariyaporn Tungkunanan and Rachan Boontima

Abstract

Given the rapid advancements faced in modern times, effective leadership is pivotal to the achievement of desired goals, competitiveness and overall success in organizations. This study aims to investigate the construct validity of management quality for vocational education institutions. The sample was 350 directors and deputy directors from vocational education institutions in Thailand, determined through Multistage Random Sampling and the research tool was a questionnaire with content validity and covering 7 sets of factors with a reliability of 0.98. The correlation of variables as determined by Kaiser- Meyer-Olkin is 0.983 and Bartlett’s test of sphericity is statistically significant. Therefore, the correlation of variables are sufficient for factor analysis. The results from the construct validity investigation of the quality management measurement model of vocational education institutions by the second order confirmatory factor analysis show that the model conforms to the empirical data derived from Chi-Square= 915.32, df= 857 and p= 0.08167 while χ2 is not significantly different from 0 at the level of 0.05 and χ2/df is lower than 2 at 1.0680. In addition, RMSEA= 0.014 and RMR= 0.012, both lower than 0.05, and GFI= 0.900 and CFI= 1.00, higher than 0.90. It was concluded that the quality management measurement model of vocational education institutions has construct validity and conforms to the empirical data.

Open access

Gabriel Turbay and Giovanni E. Reyes

Abstract

The main objective of this paper is to present in a deductive way, solutions for general games played under normal conditions following competitive paths, applying core principles of Nash equilibrium. Here the normal approach implies strategic choices available for each player, formulated and implemented without any information concerning specific choices to be made by others players. It is convenient to keep in mind that John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern outlined a set of conditions for Nash equilibrium for a game in normal form, proposed as the basic framework to analyze the conditions and requirements for a particular Nash equilibrium to be the solution of the game. Theorems that exhibit imbedding relations among the Nash equilibriums of the game are given to examine the role of pre-play communication and the imbedding order in equilibrium selection. A core argument to claim here is that a generic case of Nash equilibriums that are strategically unstable relative to maxi-min strategies is given to emphasize the role of moves of the third kind and pre-play communication in correlated and coordinated solutions and the need to account for cases where Nash equilibriums are not plausible or even desirable as solutions for a game in normal form.

Open access

Sakchai Petsuwan, Paitoon Pimdee and Phadungchai Pupat

Abstract

This research aimed to study the impacts of Distance Education System on teacher Competency and compare teacher Competency before and after Distance Education System is applied. The sample was 28 teachers from four Remote Schools in lower Northern Thailand. Questionnaire was used as a data collection tool with reliability 0.99. Mean, Standard deviation and t-test for dependent samples were applied in data analysis process. The results showed that the Competency of teacher before Distance Education System had four competencies in moderate level including Working Achievement Motivation, Self- Development, Curriculum and Learning Management and Analysis & Synthesis & Classroom Research while other competencies were in high level. Distance Education System has positive impacts on teacher Competency as the every competency reaches high level after the system is applied with statistical significance at the level of 0.01.

Open access

Daniel Guerrero and Jordi Rosell

Abstract

This research studies a set of mangrove shellfishers on the South-Pacific Coast of Colombia. Results show the impoverishment and lack of human capital of shellfishers. Findings indicate that the age of shellfishers is negatively correlated to human capital formation. As a consequence, senior shellfishers exert higher levels of effort to maintain livelihoods. By estimating seemingly unrelated regressions, we identify that shellfishers with higher human capital harvest lower shellfish quantities, implying that the less educated shellfishers engage in the activity as a last resort. Furthermore, women are more frequent in the activity, though exhibiting non-significant differences in productivity compared to men.

Open access

Glevin Dervishi

Abstract

Greek-Albanian relations can be considered as a complex relation, but at the same time with the highest potential for success in the region compared to the relations that Greece has established with the other immediate neighbours in the Balkans. These relations has passed through a continues fruition developments and sometimes with hindering situations that are deeply rooted in the history of the two nations. This can be noticed from some fundamental historical moments such as the creation of the Modern Greek state and the Albanian state, which have a constant influence in the way how current relationships are setup. It can be considered as an interdependent, vital and vibrant relation built upon a complexity of challenges, ready to generate new challenges and imposed balances, at least in the historical perspective. Greece and Albania share a similar history in many aspects, but at the same time, there are unifying and distinguishing aspects between the two countries and nations, like everywhere in the Balkans; history mostly divides nations rather than unites them. Referring to the historic ground of this relation, in this paper we will reveal the key factors that bear the heavy lift off the past, which prevails rather than the desire to have a better future.

Open access

Patrícia Alves, Célia Simão Oliveira and Marta Lima-Basto

Abstract

Food is permanently present in the daily life of the person, being much more than an act for the maintenance of life, dragging with it a multidimensional symbology and also being a way to obtain pleasure. In situations of health-illness and particularly in end-of-life situations, food may become a problem for the patient, family and for health professionals, in particular for nurses. This paper is a review of literature to present and justify the relevance of food as a basic but complex human need and to prospect its implications in the nursing care in this area, which constitutes a fundamental care. Bibliographic research was carried out at EBSCO (CINAHL and MEDLINE), academic Google and at the library of the Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Lisboa (Nursing College of Lisbon). This paper makes a critical and grounded analysis on the food phenomenon and the challenges it brings to the fundamental nursing care, and illustrates it with excerpts from an ongoing study of the first author on the food care process at end-of-life. In conclusion, nurse´s role regarding the food field should be individualized, being necessary the nurse to interact and get to know the patient to meet their expectations. This individual intervention with the patient has positive consequences for all involved in the process.

Open access

Folorunso Sunday Ayadi, Sunday Mlanga, Monday Isaac Ikpor and Robert A. Nnachi

Abstract

This study set out to investigate the reality or otherwise of the pollution haven hypothesis in Nigeria using data from 1970 to 2017 and using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) models both in the short and long run. The study used FDI inflows as measure of economic activity and carbon dioxide emission as a measure of regulatory stringency. The study finds the previous FDI inflows as a significant determinant of current FDI both in the short and long run. This implies that the more FDI an economy attracts, the more potentials it has to further attract more FDI. Population, a measure of demand condition of the host economy is positively and significantly related to FDI inflows both in the short run and in the long run. Trade openness has a positively significant impact on FDI inflows in the long run, meaning that globalization encourages FDI inflows. A year lag of the FDI has a positively significant impact on FDI inflows in the long run. This suggest that pollution haven hypothesis which states that industries with polluting technologies tend to relocate to countries or areas (pollution havens) with lax or less stringent environmental regulations is a reality for Nigeria. The implication of this is that government of Nigeria must weigh the beneficial impact of FDI inflows against the pollution impact of ‘dirty’ FDI before deciding or setting its environmental policy.