In the present study, the physicochemical, textural and sensorial properties of crackerbread (made from rye, maize and wheat flour) and rice waffles, the most popular on the Polish market bread substitutes, were determined. It was shown that values of several mechanical properties of rice waffles, including ultimate fracture force, strain and stress differed significantly from that of crackerbread. Texture profile analysis showed that the highest hardness and springiness was exhibited by rice waffles with sesame seeds and wheat-rye, respectively. The concentration of salt was the lowest in rice bread with sunflower. The most acceptable was the rice bread with sea salt (8.26 in a 9-point scale) and overall consumer acceptance of crispbreads was highly correlated with sensory attribute of saltiness.
There is a growing public interest in fruits labeled as „superfood” (functional food). A “superfood” should have a high content of bioactive substances with a positive impact on human health. Seven different cultivars of goji berry fruits (Lycium chinense Mill.) grown in north-western Poland were evaluated for its physicochemical parameters, antidiabetic and antioxidant activity, and polyphenol content. The length of 1-year-old shoots ranged from 36 cm (‘Big Lifeberry’) to 82 cm (‘Korean Big’). Cultivars from the group of Big were characterized by the biggest fruits (17.3-24.2 mm) with the greatest weight of 100 fruits (96.7122.1 g). ‘Big Lifeberry’ contained high amounts of L-ascorbic acid (408 mg 1000/g) and provitamin A (190 mg 1000/g) and showed high antidiabetic (α-amylase IC50=33.4 mg/mL; α-glucosidase IC50=9.9 mg/mL) and antioxidant activity (ABTS·+ 6.21 and FRAP 5.58 mmol T/100 g). ‘Big Lifeberry’ was also characterized by a high total content of polyphenols (43.64 mg 100/g). Furthermore, the nitrite content in all the cultivars tested was at a relatively low level. Among the examined cultivars, the most attractive one concerning the consumers’ point of view of the size, weight and high content of health-promoting compounds is ‘Big Lifeberry’.
In this research, the surface activity of bacterial supernatant and cell surface was measured by the method of oil drain ring. The influence of 19 kinds of amino acids (Histidine, Threonine, Valine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Phenylalanine, Arginine, Proline, Methionine, Tryptophan, Alanine, Glycine, Glutamine, Cysteine, Hydroxyproline, Valine, Asparagine, Proline, Glutamine, Serine, and Glutamic acid, Hydroxyproline, Tyrosine) on the production of biosurfactant by Pediococcus acidilactici F70 was studied by single factor experiment, and the main amino acids promoting the production of biosurfactant were selected by Plackett–Burman design. The results showed that the yield of biological surfactant with added amino acid increased, and the yield of Glutamine produced biosurfactant in the supernatant was the highest, which was two times higher than that of the control group (414.00mg/L); the yield of biosurfactant on the cell surface was the highest when Arginine was added, which was three times higher than that of the control group. In the end, 8 of the 19 amino acids (Glycine, Tryptophan, Proline, Methionine, Arginine, Leucine, Serine and Alanine) were selected to promote the production of biosurfactants of Pediococcus acidilactici F70. The results of Plackett–Burman design showed that Alanine, Proline and Leucine had significant effects on the production of biosurfactants.
Cayenne peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) were incorporated to ayran aiming to obtain a health promoting ayran with different flavour. The effects on the physico-chemical characteristics, antioxidant and phenolic capacity, counts of Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, yeast, moulds and coliforms, sensory and volatile compounds analysis were performed. Ayran samples with powdered peppers had significantly higher antioxidant and total phenolic contents than the ayrans with sliced pepper. Pepper addition increased Lactobacillus and Streptococcus counts compared to control ayrans. The dominant bacteria during the storage period (7.61-8.88 log CFU/ml) was Streptococcus. Panelists rated flavour, texture, appearance and color properties of ayran samples with sliced pepper similar to control samples. Ayran samples with 15% sliced peppers had the maximum overall scores.
Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) is a legume that belongs to Vigna genus. Native to Indo-Chinese region, it is considered to be an ‘under-utilized’ or ‘orphan’ crop. Rice bean is known to possess high nutritional potential and antioxidant activity. But the use of rice bean supplementation in routine diet is limited despite its high nutritional profile due to the presence of non-nutritional factors. Thus, various pre-treatments like soaking, germination, oven roasting, sand roasting, boiling and pressure cooking at different time and temperature were carried out to reduce the anti-nutritional content of rice bean and to study its effect on antioxidant activity and phytochemical content. All the pre-treatments were able to significantly reduce the anti-nutrient content in rice bean, but germination showed the maximum reduction. Also germinated rice bean showed the maximum antioxidant potential and maximum content of total phenols, total flavonoids, vitamin C and carotenoids. Rice bean has been underutilized so far, owing to its antinutrient content and low popularity. This experiment attempted to use low cost processing to reduce the content of antinutrients and track the antioxidant content in rice bean. The concluded processing could be adopted for commercial applications for dietary supplementation.
The study concerns the effects of drying process conditions (40, 50, 60°C) on the contents of bioactive compounds in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoots as well as the yield and composition of essential oils. The obtained dry material was examined for the total contents of polyphenols and the antioxidant activity as well as the content of vitamin C. The material was examined by using the HS-SPME method, and the composition of the essential oils was determined using gas chromatography method (GC-MS). The highest contents of bioactive compounds were found in the material subjected to drying at 40°C. The highest yield of essential oils (0.63 ml 100 g−1 d.m. of the material) was obtained from the pine shoots dried at 40°C.
Ethiopia is known for its specialty Arabica coffees affected by mix-up. Physical and sensory properties of dry processed green coffee beans have been reported for the influence on the sensorial quality and coffee process optimization. The aim of this study was to investigate physical and sensory properties of sixteen varieties and to determine relationship of attributes. Physical properties of coffee beans were taken by measuring linear dimensions, densities and weight. Moreover, professional cuppers were analyzed sensory properties by using standard procedures. In this study, the longest (10.40 mm), the widest (6.82 mm) and the thickest (4.48 mm) varieties were Odicha, Feyate and Challa, respectively whereas the shortest (8.28 mm), narrowest (5.59 mm) and thinnest (3.52 mm) were 74110, Mocha and Bultum, respectively. The shape & make value of variety Bultum was “fair good” whereas variety Feyate was “very good”. Furthermore, the results of “shape & make” were significantly correlated with measured physical properties. The results indicate that most physical and sensory properties of coffee varieties have significant (P ≤ 0.05 differences. These properties were influenced by growing regions and variety difference. The outcome of this study can be used for coffee bean characterization and process optimization to improve beverage quality.
Some holoparasitic species can become cultivated plants due to their unique chemical composition. A lot of bioactive contents are characteristic for them. Holoparasites of the family Orobanchaceae are known to be an important and rich source of polyphenols, especially metabolites of the phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs) group. However, only a minority of the species in this family have been phytochemically tested. They are reported to have multiple biological and therapeutic effects and have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine. This is the first study to present phytochemical profiling for a representative of genus Phelypaea. The chemical composition and biological activity in particular organs of the parasite, P. tournefortii, were determined. The interaction with its host, Tanacetum polycephalum (Asteraceae), from different places and altitudes was also studied. We presented the determination of polyphenolic compounds with the UPLC-PDA-MS/MS method, antioxidative effects and inhibitory activities, polyphenols, and nitrates content, ABTS•+, DPPH, FRAP, as well as colour parameters. The polyphenols profile of the parasite and host were different in quality and quantity. Identification of polyphenolic compounds revealed 41 compounds, 15 in the parasite (12 phenylethanoids and 3 anthocyanins), and 26 in the host (mainly flavonoids and phenolic acids). The amount and biological activity of polyphenolic compounds present in Phelypaea was very diverse and depended on the host plant and the parasite’s organs, as well as on population altitude. The results show that P. tournefortii is a potential source of functional and pro-health components. They also direct researchers’ attention to the parasite’s organs, host, and environmental influence.
Brewers’ spent grains (BSG) are the main waste product of the brewing industry, accounting for about 85% of the total waste materials. Their composition is different (due to various brewing technologies) but includes high levels of dietary fiber, proteins, essential amino acids, polyphenols, antioxidants, vitamins and fats. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenolic content and antioxidant activity (the radical scavenging assay (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) of 19 different malt types and their BSG. The highest phenolic content was demonstrated by the BSG of Caraaroma malt, whereas the BSG of Carafa Special type 1 had the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power. Based on the results obtained, malts with the highest biological value were selected for inclusion in the composition of functional foods.
A significant increase in highbush blueberry plantings has been observed annually. However, there is a problem with the handling of fruit that does not meet the requirements for dessert berries. One of the methods to use the fruit is drying. The research was conducted in the Department of Horticulture at the West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin. The fruit was harvested at a plantation specialising in the production of highbush blueberry from irrigated and non-irrigated plots. This study aimed to assess how cutting or pricking highbush blueberry fruit affects the duration of the sublimation drying process – freeze-drying. The biological value of fresh, freeze-dried, and rehydrated fruit was assessed. The amount of fruit left on bushes depended on the weather prevailing in the growing season, especially during the harvest period. The mass of fruit left on the bushes was approx. 1 to 2 t/ha. Although these fruits were small, they had a very high biological value. After freeze-drying and rehydration, the blueberry fruit retained their colour, high content of polyphenols and showed high antidiabetic activity and antioxidant capacity. The large fruit reached the moisture content of approx. 12%, which ensures safe storage and the appropriate texture, after 46 hours of drying, and the smaller fruit - after 32 hours. Fruit cutting or pricking reduced the drying time by half. Reducing this time decreased drying costs and increased biological value.