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Martin Richter, Eva Richterová and Iveta Zentková

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to find out the relationship between beer productions in separate V4 countries. Logarithmic regression analyses with corrected heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation is used to observe the relationship between beer production as dependent variable and independent variables beer consumption, barley and hops yield, imported and exported quantity. All estimated logarithmic regression models are statistically highly significant. Variables without statistical significance are not interpreted. All interpreted variables are inelastic. Except of Czech Republic beer consumption is significant variable in relation to beer production what can suggest export orientation of Czech breweries. Exported beer quantity is significant variable in given model. In Slovakia barley yield is statistically significant but negatively correlated to beer production. In other countries barley and hops yields are not statistically significant. This may mean that these crops are not directly used in domestic beer production. Crops are exported in order to obtain higher added value from side of primary producers. Based on that, beer is mostly produced from intermediate products or imported from other countries.

Open access

Elena Hošková, Iveta Zentková and Tatiana Svetlanská

Abstract

Consumption and increasing level of living conditions are the main characteristics of society nowadays. Quality of life is necessarily related to living conditions of population, therefore form a basis of sustainable development. The aim of the article is to determine the economic conditions of the population in Visegrad countries (V4) based on the economic indicators of quality of life. The main data source is Eurostat for the period 2005–2017. In the paper is stated and analyzed development of eight indicators of quality of life in the field of material living conditions. They are divided into three groups: indicators on income, consumption and indicators related to the living conditions of the V4 population. The results of the analysis showed that residents of the Czech Republic have the highest quality of life, followed by Slovakia, Poland and Hungary. Position of the Czech Republic and Slovakia among the V4 countries is relatively stable over the reported period. The most significant positive change in several indicators of quality of life was recorded in case of Poland. As for the individual indicators, it was proved in case of Hungary, they had dramatic development without the statistical attributability of their development trend.

Open access

Lukáš Varecha

Abstract

In the paper, we analyse the relationship between third sector local institutions, which represent a component of social capital, and human development at the level of Slovak municipalities. In order to measure human development we use modified human development index, reflecting unemployment, level of education and gross mortality rate. We hypothesize that third sector institutions acting at the local level have a positive impact on human development. We utilize regression analysis in order to reveal this relationship, using cross-sectional data. Statistical results confirm our hypothesis. There is a positive and statistically significant relationship between the number of civic associations and the level of the human development index, even when filtering out other impacts, including self-government organizations per 1,000 inhabitants and net assets of the municipality per inhabitant. This result may be explained by the concept of social capital, meaning the network of interest-group relationships has a positive impact on providing services, governance and better access to less accessible forms of capital.

Open access

Anita Tolnay, András Koris and Robert Magda

Abstract

The main objective of the current study is to highlight sustainable development from the perspective of the cosmetics industry producing ‘eco-friendly’ products. In the last decades an enhancing interest is being experienced towards sustainable development among cosmetics manufacturing companies, scientific research and development (R & D) laboratories as well as green consumers in the need for natural products safer for health and less toxic for the environment. Several international studies show that cosmetic products formulated with natural ingredients developed by cosmetic industry has a higher annual market growth than for synthetic products. R & D puts special focus on new innovative technologies in green cosmetic products to meet the frequently updated requirements of regulations in compliance with the current legislation. Scientific laboratory market has an increasing importance to evaluate natural and organic raw materials. In this work the authors attempt to focus on the growing importance of research activities to sustainable cosmetics production in life cycle assessment methodology. Naturally, the conceptual scope and extent of this study do not permit all the possible issues to be examined from every aspects due to lack of data, thus it will be endeavored to point out merely the most relevant considerations in the field of cosmetic industry.

Open access

Zuzana Lazíková

Abstract

Household income is one of the basic indicators of the living standard of population in countries or regions. The income indicator is inextricably linked to the household expenditure indicator, whose structure also indicates the living standards of households. The development of income and expenditures of Slovak households has been affected by many events over the last decades (fulfilment of the Maastricht criteria, accession of the Slovak Republic to the EU, adoption of the euro currency, economic crisis). The category of gross cash expenditures, net cash expenditures or consumption expenditures may be used to assess household expenditures. Based on the classification by individual consumption by purpose (COICOP), the expenditures are divided into 12 basic categories. The development of individual categories of expenditures, however, should be analysed separately as there is no long-term balanced relationship between them.

Open access

András Szeberényi

Abstract

Nowadays, in our current world more and more people are dealing with the usage of the fossil energy that are only available in a limited amount. According to the current situation the usage of the fossil energy is considered as a worldwide issue, for instance, while the amount of the mined (extracted) oil is decreasing, the amount of the new cars are increasing exponentially which also raising the environmental impact, strenghten the greenhouse- and the global warming effect, and these all include more and more inherent risks and unsolved problems. One of the most efficient solutions is to change the attitude of young people toward environmentally friendly lifestyle. The local governments have the other decisive role which takes a huge part of the population’s education regarding the environmental awareness because they show the direction by their own example how they can do more to protect their environment. Near Mátra – which is the largest mountain in Hungary – can be found the micro-region of Gyöngyös and it’s one of the main characteristics are the extremely clear air, dense forest and the presence of the rich fauna. Thanks to these peculiarity the micro-region is an ideal place for this research. The aim of the research was to create a representative investigation by the help of all the governments in the micro-region of Gyöngyös which provide a comprehensive image about the level of use of renewable energy at the local governments, about their environmentally conscious attitude and their action plans how to enhance this approach by projects, tenders, social media or any other way.

Open access

Dmytro Kachan

Abstract

Technical support of producers of agrarian products has always been and will remain a topical issue in realities of agrarian sector of Ukraine. In recent years, integrated forms of agricultural enterprises have become more widespread, which make it possible to increase and renew a machine-tractor park of their participants. In course of study four main technologies of soil cultivation and their impact were considered, an amount of necessary machinery and equipment, energy and labor costs, and impact on quality indicators of soil health. Also, main organizational forms of enterprises that provide equipment rental services or perform fieldwork were analyzed. Proposals were made regarding a merger of existing enterprises into agro technical centers, which would increase an efficiency of their functioning and cover functions of regional self-government. Also, the most common forms of machinery usage by agricultural enterprises were considered.

Open access

Samuel Adamec and Alena Andrejiová

Abstract

From year to year, the world growing area is being more poluted with heavy metals or excessive salt level and exposed to lack of moisture or avaiable nutrients in the soil. This resulting in a loss of agricultural land where vegetables were grown in the past. The producers must also fight with more resistant and new species or strains of soil pathogens, while chemical protection is not always the most suitable solution for human health and the environment. Our review focuses on the great importance of using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to alleviate abiotic and biotic stress, taking into account the use in vegetable production. The review is gradually focusing on individual stressors and defines the mechanisms of mycorrhizal fungi that contribute to the sustainable agriculture even under severe stress conditions.

Open access

Oleg Paulen and Radoslav Kobolka

Abstract

The work suggests importance of monitoring apple tree pests from moth group in growing conditions of Nitra, Slovakia. In 2014 there was observed occurrence of moths e.g. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.), Appleseed moth (Grapholita lobarzewskii Now.), Hawthorn berry moth (G. janthinana Dup.), and Summer fruit tortrix moth (Adoxophyes orana Fish. v. Roesl.) in the apple tree orchard located in the Botanical Garden of SUA in Nitra with help of pheromone traps. The date of first generation occurrence of Codling moth, Appleseed moth and Summer fruit tortrix moth was recorded on April 23. All the pests showed two peaks of flight activity, but with Hawthorn berry moth three periods of higher occurrence were recorded. The course of temperatures influenced number of pests trapped in traps remarkably. The number of pest individuals was highly influenced by rainy weather and lower temperatures in months when there was expected their highest harmfulness. The recorded values might be influenced by plant species diversity of the experimental orchard as well as that of the surrounding area.

Open access

Wim Heijman and Thijs Schepman

Abstract

This paper estimates the size of the Dutch Bio-Economy, based on its value added. Using consolidated input-output tables, the size of the Dutch Bio-Economy is estimated for the period 2008–2015 and future predictions are made for the period 2016–2020. During the period 2008–2015, the Dutch Bio-Economy has grown from 5.5% of the total Dutch value added in 2008 up to 6.6% in 2015. For future prediction, five scenarios are analysed, with projected growth of the Bio-Economy ranging from 6.87% of total value added on the low end to 8.48% on the high end in 2020.