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Open access

R. Juhászné Tóth and J. Csapó

Abstract

The role of selenium has been changed over the last decade. The element that was previously considered to be toxic turned out to be present in the human body in amounts of 10–15 mg, and almost every cell of our body contains it. Selenium contributes to growth, supports healthy muscle activity, reproductive organs, reduces the toxicity of certain elements such as mercury, supports the immune system, and even delays the spread of certain viruses (influenza, Ebola, HIV). Selenium-deficient areas of Europe could be a risk for their populations. The recommended daily intake (RDA) of selenium is 55 µg/day, while WHO and FAO have set up the daily tolerable dose at 400 µg/day. We must count with the harmful effects of selenium overdose, but it is almost impossible to introduce this amount into our body solely with food. Our selenium sources can be refilled with food supplements or selenium-enriched functional foods. In the review article, we report about the role of selenium in the environment, selenium-enriched plants, selenium-enriched yeast, the role of selenium in animal feed and in the human body, the opportunities of selenium restoration, selenium-enriched animal products, and the selenium content of milk.

Open access

J. Csapó, Cs. Albert and D. Kiss

Abstract

We have developed methods for the production of protected methionine and protected lysine, making use of the reaction between citric acid and malic acid as well as methionine and lysine, on the one hand, and of the interaction between swollen bentonite and the two amino acids, on the other hand. Our in vivo and in vitro experiments have demonstrated that one part of the amino acids transformed during the reaction, while another part bound on the bentonite’s surface to a significant degree. Assisted by the reaction between hydroxycarboxylic acids and amino acids, we achieved a protection of about 75% for methionine and 60% for lysine, that is, 25% of the methionine and 40% of the lysine appeared in the free amino acid fraction. The swollen bentonite bound 75% of the added methionine and 60% of the added lysine. Our chemical analyses have demonstrated that through the time–temperature combinations applied by us the methionine and lysine do not undergo significant degradation and can be fully released from the protected form. Further, our in vitro experiments using rumen fluid from fistulated cattle showed that during the average retention time of the fodder in the rumen the protected amino acids will resist microbial enzymes and maintain their protected status during their presence in the rumen.

Open access

J. Csapó, D. Kiss and Cs. Albert

Abstract

Prebiotics are such indigestible food ingredients that enter the colon and serve as nutrient for bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Since fibres and oligosaccharides are the typical prebiotics, we produced prebiotics in our experiments with the reaction of lactose and malic acid as well as citric acid, where these reactions made use of an appropriate concentration of these substances, had an adequate duration, and were carried out under optimal temperature conditions. We determined the optimal parameters of the reaction, measured the loss of the starting materials as well as the increase in concentration of the end-product, and analysed the total sugar content of the hydrolysed prebiotics after hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid. In vitro experiments were performed to demonstrate our end-product’s resistance to carbohydrate-degrading enzymes, which is a fundamental requirement for a prebiotic so that upon reaching the colon it can serve as nutrient for the probiotic bacteria found there.

Open access

J. Csapó and Cs. Albert

Abstract

The research subject is the elaboration of a method and procedure for processing feather from poultry slaughterhouses and using it as antioxidant as well as for satisfying the sulphurous amino acid needs of ruminants. We investigated the level of digestion of the meal feather obtained with our technology, its antioxidant effect and role in the rumen fermentation of the ruminants. Making use of the digested feather meal’s antioxidant effect and amino acid composition, we make a suggestion for the preparation to be used as antioxidant and for the satisfaction of the sulphurous amino acid needs of ruminants. By adopting this procedure, the valueless feather can be transformed into a useful feed supplement (natural antioxidant, sulphur source) that can bring about significant economic growth. Pre-trials have been performed successfully, and in what follows we’ll need to prove through field trials and pilot-scale experiments that feather meal can be produced and utilized economically as antioxidant in monogastric animals and as a sulphur source in the studying of ruminants.

Open access

J. Csapó and Cs. Albert

Abstract

We have developed a new procedure for reducing soy trypsin inhibitor activity by means of heat treatment combined with chemical methods, through which soy trypsin inhibitor activity decreases to the tenth or twentieth part of the original value. We determined the optimal concentration of the applied chemicals (hydrogen-peroxide, ammonium-hydroxide) as well as the optimal temperature and duration of the treatment. The chemical procedure combined with heat treatment results in lower energy consumption as compared to the original heat treatment methods.

Open access

É. Laslo and É. György

Abstract

Owing to their nutrient composition, dairy products ensure a favourable environment for different microorganisms. In our study, we investigated the microbiological quality of 22 different commercially available dairy products obtained from local stores and the open-air public market. Among the studied samples four were salty type soft cheese, two were fresh cheese, one was soft cheese (Mascarpone), one was feta-like cheese (Telemea), five were varieties of processed cheese, one was mozzarella, one was a semi-hard cheese, one was smoked cheese, five were cottage cheese, and one was a dairy spread. Samples were evaluated for the presence of Pseudomonas sp., total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens, yeast, and microscopic fungi.

Contamination level of the evaluated dairy products varied widely. Among the dairy samples one salty soft cheese, a processed cheese and one cottage cheese were the most contaminated, while low microbiological load was detected in the other samples.

Open access

O. Fadairo, G. Diósi, I. Mironescu and E. Máthé

Abstract

Variants of kokoro snack samples were produced by fortification of maize flour-Fibersol 2-whey protein blends at 1% each with functional ingredients (ginger, fenugreek, turmeric, spirulina, red paprika) and a final blend containing all the functional ingredients at 1% level each. The resultant kokoro snack samples produced were evaluated for proximate composition and sensory qualities. The results of proximate analysis showed a significant (P < 0.05) difference in moisture, protein, ash content, crude fat, crude fibre, carbohydrate content, and energy values in all the blends of the kokoro snack sample and ranged from 51.20% to 36.80%, from 4.46% to 3.85%, from 1.15% to 0.98%, from 0.13% to 0.00%, from 4.93% to 3.94%, from 53.57% to 39.2, and from 232.30 kcal/100 g to 172.99 kcal/100 g respectively. There was also a significant (P < 0.05) difference in the sensory attributes of all kokoro samples in terms of appearance, aroma, taste, texture, and overall acceptability. The kokoro snack blend R 97:1:1:1 (Maize: Fibersol 2: Whey protein: Red paprika) was most preferred by the panellists, having the highest mean sensory score of 8.97. The results of the evaluation of the kokoro snack samples showed that an acceptable fortified bakery product based on kokoro can be produced by the addition of maize flour-Fibersol 2-whey protein blends to red paprika and ginger at 1% level of fortification. This will further encourage the cultivation and utilization of these spices in food formulation and hence provide health-promoting benefits to target consumers.

Open access

É. György and É. Laslo

Abstract

The antibiotic resistance of foodborne pathogens represents a healthcare concern globally. This phenomenon has an increasing impact on medicine and economy. A total of 26 spoilage and pathogenic bacterial isolates originating from different dairy products have been screened against eight different antibiotics. Based on the type of the selective agar medium used for their isolation, the isolates were: five staphylococci isolates, six Vibrio isolates, two Pseudomonas sp. isolates, three Salmonella isolates, five E. coli isolates, and five coliform isolates. The overall resistance to the tested antimicrobials of the bacterial isolates was 31.73%, the majority being susceptible. Based on the results, there are isolates with multiple antibiotic patterns that can be possible risk factors and may call for preventive measures.