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Open access

Lucia Travaini

Abstract

This article is a revised version of papers prepared for the conferences in Cambridge and Oslo. It is focused on the way how to interpret coins occurring in the medieval graves of saints as well as in the graves of ordinary people defined by L. Travaini as ‘sinners’. In the case of the term ‘ritual’, the author is interested in its general religious use, public and private, having in mind that medieval people had an uninterrupted relationship with the other world. Angels, saints and demons were integrated into any ritual, even in that which can appear as ‘civic’ today, including blessing and presence of clerics. In that way, any contexts – once seen as ‘ritual’ – must be seen as ‘economic’ in present numismatic research, and the author shows it on concrete examples from Italy and other European countries. Some finds, once seen as signs of economic activities, can be seen as rituals today.

Open access

Zdeněk Kutina

Abstract

The National Bank of Romania decided to produce some means of payment for the monetary reform of 1947 in secrecy. The Czechoslovak National Bank (NBČS) executed a perfect graphic appearance for the banknote of 100 lei based on a drawing by a Romanian painter. The bank produced printing forms for offset processing and printed 12 series from the June issue. Bucharest was provided with the watermarked banknote paper for another 30 million of bills as well as printing forms and numbering machines. Later on, the bank produced printing forms for the letter-print and delivered them together with 50 new numbering machines for the purpose of the December issue. The author is focused on various phases of this cooperation as well as on the connection among watermarks, series, numbering machines and issues of this sole Romanian banknote, in which the NBČS’ printing office was involved in a decisive way. The author mentioned also mintage of the 2-lei coin in the Kremnica mint in 1947.

Open access

Jiří Lukas

Abstract

The article offers a partial reconstruction attempt focused on the hoard of the Bohemian deniers struck under Boleslaus II (972–999) discovered in the surroundings of Ústí nad Labem sometimes before 1895. The reconstruction is based on analysis of older literature and the hand-written notes produced by the Czech numismatist Eduard Fiala.

Open access

Július Fröhlich

Abstract

The spade-shaped staters from the area characterized by the Púchov Culture in Slovakia differ from other Celtic coins by their special spade-shaped form and also by their material. The known types of the spade-shaped staters were made – with some exceptions – of alloy with different portions of gold and silver. The first stater here, because of its weight, characteristic shape and finding place (near Dubnica nad Váhom, Slovakia), could be classified under the type preceding all other types of the spade-shaped staters. The second piece – a part cut from a spade-shaped stater – represents a contemporary forgery of the same type as it is in the case of the previous coin. The core of the forged specimen is made of high-quality silver plated by a thick gold foil. This kind of forgeries is known mainly from the Hellenistic period, these pieces come from the Macedonian-Thracian region, and they appeared in the Celtic milieu starting with the 3rd century BC.

Open access

Jan Videman

Abstract

The article is focused on problems with the so-called imitative coins, i.e. deniers copying the Bavarian and Bohemian prototypes which are documented in hoards together with official issues. In the case of the earliest phase of production of the first Bohemian coins – dating to the third quarter of the 10th century – also the so-called imitative pieces with corruptive marginal legends are registered in the contemporary hoards together with the official coins bearing the name of the duke and the mint. The author brings an actualized list of these coins produced in that period and found locally. The pieces made of worse-quality metal – mostly with plated copper core – dominate among the newly documented specimens predominantly coming from important hillforts or trade centers. Based on the map of the finds and on the variability of their fabric, at least a significant part of these coins were evidently mostly produced outside of the center of the Duchy of Bohemia (Prague). Local origin can be considered also in the case of the Moravian pieces.

Open access

Pavel Vojtíšek

Abstract

Three unknown varieties of the Prague kipper coins by B. Hübmer produced in the Prague mint are described in this article. The coins differ from the recently documented types in the following small details: mint-master’s mark in brackets, form of year or differences in eagle’s image. Information about these issues has been enriched, and it can help in creation of the ‘complete survey’ of the Bohemian kipper coins. Basic notes for collectors about rarity of these coins are also implemented in the article.

Open access

Tomáš Jeřábek

Abstract

In connection with the earlier article published in 2012 which discussed the hoard of 57 Prague grossi discovered between March 2010 and May 2012 in the field to the north of Stará Boleslav – a historical city and a pilgrimage place situated about 20km to the north-east of Prague – the author presents the missing part of the hoard which was not published in the original article. It includes twelve Prague grossi and four parvi struck under John of Luxembourg. With these additional coins, the entire hoard covers thirteen previously known varieties of the Prague grossi and adds one new variety (no. 11 in the survey table). In order to determine the approximate burial date of the hoard, the author takes into account the assumed production period of the latest variety – Castelin VIII. 47 – and concludes that the hoard could have been buried at some point during the late 1340s or early 1350s. As for the actual reason of depositing, common form of money thesaurisation is assumed, most likely by a resident of Stará Boleslav or a pilgrim visiting the town. At the time of the assumed depositing, the place had already played a role of an important pilgrimage centre for several centuries.

Open access

Martin Pták

Abstract

The presented article describes two group coin-finds from south Bohemia. The first group of coins was discovered via exhumation of a common grave in the surroundings of Horní Lhota near Lásenice dating back to May 1945. It is represented by cash (or remaining part of it) owned by a German soldier in May 1945. The second group of coins was found at the Radíš hillfort, and it is represented by pieces in a wallet evidently lost on a trip or during forest works sometimes between 1949 and 1953. The article emphasizes importance and necessity of documentation even of these late modern coin-finds.

Open access

Lukáš Richtera

Abstract

Practical applicability of alternative sort of coating of contemporary copper forgeries with use of mercury only (i.e. without use of another metal such as silver or tin) has been experimentally definitely proven. This undescribed way of amalgamation coating is based on simple dipping of a cleaned copper flan in mercury. In few hours, a stable silvery layer of the copper amalgam covers the copper surface. This kind of plating was most likely used by forgers in process of plating of the copper forgeries copying parvi of Wenceslas II at the beginning of the 14th century.

Open access

Ondřej Černohorský

Abstract

Two Prague grossi of Wenceslas IV of Luxembourg were found near the Libštejn Castle. The first of these grossi has never been published and it is analysed here in detail. Because of differences in its image and marginal legend, it is newly classified under the recent typological and chronological categories. Both coins were lost very likely in context of the historical events of the 1420s.