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Suryyia Manzoor and Taniya Iqbal

Abstract

This article reviews water transportation, testing and purification techniques in a regional context - the Indo-Pak subcontinent, a southern region of Asia - during the early modern period. A brief history of comparative methodologies based on surveys and historical texts has been explored as evidence of the evolving types of water testing parameters between the sixteenth and the nineteenth centuries. This analysis also took under consideration the role of culture, beliefs as well as religious rituals in the selection of drinking water and how it has influenced the population living conditions, dominating the process of decision-making within a specific community.

Open access

Carmen Toribio Marín

Abstract

The different combinations between the “classic” fourfold pattern and water in the garden have produced a high number of varied solutions since the distant past. However, during the Renaissance a new model emerges: a crossaxial garden with four basins arranged symmetrically around its center. The composite analysis of the related examples is addressed in this paper, which attempts to find an explanation for the different models as for the appearance of the contrasting solution at the same time in two different locations: the Villa Lante (Bagnaia, Italy) and the Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo in El Escorial (Madrid, Spain).

Open access

Ana Duarte Rodrigues