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Open access

Wojciech Pokojski and Paulina Pokojska

Abstract

The article presents the person and works of Georgy Voronoi (1868-1908), the inventor of an original method of diagrams, a student of the famous mathematician Andrey Markov. Georgy Voronoi graduated from the Department of Physics and Mathematics at the University of St. Petersburg, and subsequently worked as a professor of mathematics at the Imperial University of Warsaw. One of his students was the future outstanding Polish mathematician Wacław Sierpiński. In his brief lifetime G. Voronoi published several important scientific articles on number theory. In an almost 100 page paper in French published in 1908 he described a method of diagrams, or polygons, which became known as the method of Voronoi diagrams. In the digital age this method and its modifications found new applications. The entry “Voronoi” is getting more popular on the Internet, and the method of Voronoi diagrams and its modifications are widely described in handbooks and scientific articles. The article presents application of the method in the most popular computer programs from the Geographic Information System (GIS) group and presents examples of its usage in research on geographic space in various scientific disciplines.

Open access

Robert M. Schwartz

Abstract

The introduction and expansion of rapid rail transportation in Great Britain helped transform sea fishing and make fresh fish a new commodity of mass consumption. In agriculture the rail network greatly facilitated the shift from mixed cereal farming to dairy farming. To demonstrate the timing and extent of these changes in food production this article blends history and geography to create a spatial history of the subject. Using the computational tools of GIS and text mining, spatial history charts the expanding geography and size of the fresh fish industry and documents the growing concern among fishermen of over-fishing. In agricultural, huge flows of cheap wheat from the United states caused a crisis in British wheat farming, forcing many farmers to convert arable land to pasture for use in dairy farming. Given the growing demand for fresh milk in cities and increased availability of rapid rail transport in rural areas, dairy farming replaced wheat farming in outlying counties such as Wiltshire, the example examined here.

Open access

Ian J. Kerr

Abstract

The transfer of railway technology within the British Empire, and particularly to India provides the focus for this paper that explores—conceptually, historiographically and substantively—what was transferred and how that transfer took place. Drawing upon the large-scale technical system literature and labor history the paper highlights various kinds and levels of transfer agents working through, albeit in an often-contested fashion, Afro-Asian labor processes as central components within the transfer process when railway construction was involved. Railway construction is then counterpoised to railway operation where the transfer process exhibited greater British dictation and adherence to British practice.

Open access

Domingo Cuéllar

Abstract

Railway towns, in their essence, are a specific evolution of the system of company towns, which disseminated during the 19th and 20th centuries. These company towns were characterised by communities of workers employed by the same company or group of companies, which owned the houses and infrastructures and exerted some sort of control over the town’s economic and social living. The model of a garden-city, under which most of the examples studied were developed, was the most common, although not the only one. Despite the relevance of these processes, there are no papers that analyse them in a global perspective and in the long run, but only studies that focus on particular cases with barely any contextualisation. Lest we forget that railway towns grew in tandem with the rail networks all over the world, from the most industrialised and populated areas to the new regions targeted for colonisation. In order to overcome this set of isolated reports of individual railway towns, in this paper, I group the most significant references and studies about railway towns created by different companies in different countries to propose a broader interpretation of the overall phenomenon. Amidst the features intended to be analysed, I highlight the origin and nature of these towns, their forms and urban structures, the most notable case studies, and their future as industrial heritage (questioning the reasons for the current status of the towns, some devoid of their railway functions, others with a lesser presence of the railway, and others almost depopulated).

Open access

Nna O. Uluocha

Abstract

Nigeria has a vast array of both natural and cultural tourist attractions. The country’s tourism industry, however, remains grossly underdeveloped, and the tourism resources are largely untapped. Hence, the tourism sector of the economy is yet to contribute significantly to the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). One major factor that is responsible for the nation’s current lacklustre performance of the tourism sector is the poor state of tourism packaging and promotion, which, amongst other things is caused by the lack of appropriate tourist maps. Tourism mapping is a key component of tourism planning, development, promotion and management. For Nigeria to drastically and significantly improve the fortunes of her tourism sector, the production, circulation and use of accurate, current and comprehensive tourist maps and atlases must be vigorously pursued. To ensure sustainable tourism mapping and in line with global best practices, the country needs to adopt a Geoinformation technology-based, Internet-compatible multimedia cartographic approach. The author of this paper, therefore, examines the current state of tourism industry and tourism mapping in Nigeria. Some of the hiccups to tourism mapping in the country are identified. The implications of the present poor state of tourism mapping on tourism planning, development, promotion and management in the country are briefly considered. The author makes a strong case for the adoption of a multimedia cartographic approach to tourism mapping in Nigeria. A case of mapping wildlife parks in Nigeria is presented to demonstrate the prospects of effective multimedia tourism mapping of the country. Furthermore, the author identifies and discusses various existing resources in the country that could be harnessed for efficient and sustainable production, distribution and use of multimedia tourist maps/atlases, using Geographical Information Technologies (GIT). Some potential challenges to effective GIT-based tourism mapping in the country as well as how such challenges could be overcome, are equally discussed. Similarly, a model for Web-based, multimedia tourism mapping using GIT is presented. With clear vision, the right policy instrument, mandate, legislation, funding and coordination in place, the current challenges to effective and sustainable tourism mapping in Nigeria can easily be surmounted.

Open access

Karol Łopatecki

Abstract

The author discusses a phenomenon of putting the works of military cartography on medals cast in the 17th century. The analysis focused on a medal presented to Krzysztof Arciszewski (1592-1656) by the Dutch West India Company in 1637. The obverse of this medal features two cartographic images depicting the siege of the Arraial Velho do Bom Jesus fortress (1635) and the battle between Camarigibi and Porto Calvo (1636). They were patterned after two manuscript maps. The maps were made by Arciszewski and attached to a memorandum written and sent to the management of the West India Company on 13 June 1633. They were engraved and published in print only around 1644. The plan of the battle that took place on 18 January 1636 indicates that the engraver (author unknown) used not only the manuscript version but also the medal. The example of the medal minted in 1637 confirms the credibility of cartographic representations featured on numismatic items. It should, naturally, be borne in mind that such representations must have been simplified due to the very nature of the means. Nevertheless, should there be no proper manuscript pattern, such objects may be used successfully as valuable cartographic sources.

Open access

Jürgen Renn

Abstract

The paper argues that humanity has entered a new stage of evolution: epistemic evolution. Just as cultural evolution emerged against the background of biological evolution, epistemic evolution began as an aspect of cultural evolution and now dominates the global fate of humanity. It is characterized by the increasing dependence of global society on the achievements and further extension of science and technology in order to ensure its sustainability in the age of the Anthropocene. The historical development of knowledge is reviewed from an evolutionary perspective that introduces key concepts of an historical epistemology.

Open access

Kamila Łucjan and Paweł Wojtanowicz

Abstract

Advancements in computer technology that have occurred in recent decades have enabled an intensive development in cartographic methods for direct representation of phenomena dynamics. Even with the appearance of ever more advanced technical solutions, the theoretical basis still needs supplementing. The previous cartographic literature emphasises the importance of congruence and isomorphism principles preservation that aims at increasing the effectiveness of dynamic displays. Nevertheless, it is frequently the case that discontinuous phenomena are depicted with the use of smooth transitions. For this reason, it is vital that experimental research should lead to defining which representation methods are appropriate for a given type of content. Our study was focused on the cartographic design of scene transitions in animated maps. Two main conclusions of the research indicate that 1) mode of transition influences the interpretation of the content of cartographic animation depicting discrete changes, 2) maps executed in a smooth mode demonstrate lower effectiveness when compared with animations using an abrupt and abrupt with decay effect transitions.

Open access

Hugo Silveira Pereira

Abstract

In the 1870s, Portugal transferred the public works program it was undertaking on the mainland – in which railways played a decisive role – to its African colonies of Angola and Mozambique. In this strategy, the United Kingdom was an obvious partner, given the historical connection between both nations and the geographical proximity between the colonies each country had in Africa. However, British and Portuguese imperial agendas could easily clash, as both London and Lisbon coveted the same areas of Africa. Hence, the initial and apparent cooperation rapidly evolved to a situation of conflict. In this paper, I aim to analyse three instances of dispute between Portugal and Britain about colonial railways in Angola and Mozambique. I will use the methodological tools of conflict resolution analysis in a historical perspective and the concept of track-two diplomacy within the framework of technodiplomacy.