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Analysis of performance of selected geospatial analyses implemented on the basis of relational and NoSQL databases

Abstract

Databases are a basic component of every GIS system and many geoinformation applications. They also hold a prominent place in the tool kit of any cartographer. Solutions based on the relational model have been the standard for a long time, but there is a new increasingly popular technological trend – solutions based on the NoSQL database which have many advantages in the context of processing of large data sets. This paper compares the performance of selected spatial relational and NoSQL databases executing queries with selected spatial operators. It has been hypothesised that a non-relational solution will prove to be more effective, which was confirmed by the results of the study. The same spatial data set was loaded into PostGIS and MongoDB databases, which ensured standardisation of data for comparison purposes. Then, SQL queries and JavaScript commands were used to perform specific spatial analyses. The parameters necessary to compare the performance were measured at the same time. The study’s results have revealed which approach is faster and utilises less computer resources. However, it is difficult to clearly identify which technology is better because of a number of other factors which have to be considered when choosing the right tool.

Open access
Between retrogression and progression – a proposal for a new method to recreate the historical building layout of settlement units

Abstract

The use of cartographic sources and methods are the basic tools of historical geography. One of the main research trends in this field is the analysis of the spatial layout and number of old settlement units. The confrontation of maps with historical data allows the drawing of a town’s area at a certain time to be studied. The retrogression (R) and progression (P) methods that are currently used are imperfect and the model created (map) is usually incomplete and its reliability is limited. In the author’s opinion, the joining of retrogression and progression (a new method; combined – K)1 increases the quality of cartographic reconstruction of natural and cultural landscapes. The use of basic mathematical methods from the scope of set operations means the component reliability of the researched cartographic model can be varied because the common part of the retrogression and progression cartographic model represents mutual verification of source data. Quantitative effectiveness assessments of retrogression (R), progression (P) and the combined method (K) can be made for countable elements (e.g. buildings). As part of the conducted study, the effectiveness of separate methods was calculated: R = 76% for retrogression, P = 59% for progression and K = R ∪ P = 85% for the combined method. The mutual verification of the methods (R ∩ P) included 45% of residential buildings. The author describes the proposition of a new method and the course of verification research.

Open access
Cartographic image of “wandering streets and their names” in Lublin (in the 20th and 21st century) – verification of a research method

Abstract

The authors’ main goal is to highlight the additional research potential of the method of analysing changes in the routes and names of streets introduced by Paweł E. Weszpiński in 2012. The proposed method was based on the old city maps of Warsaw and, according to Weszpiński, described “wandering streets and their names”. Taking the changing routes and names of streets on Lublin city maps from the last century as the research subject, the authors demonstrate that the method can be used to analyse how urban spaces are perceived and how they function in the minds of local residents. The authors propose to modify the method by adding one more important factor – the function of the place or street affected by the “wandering”. They claim that the study of changes in streets’ topography, territorial scope and names should be supplemented each time with an analysis of the administrative, economic or social significance of the place.

Open access
Geomorphological modelling and mapping of the Peru-Chile Trench by GMT

Abstract

The author presents a geospatial analysis of the Peru-Chile Trench located in the South Pacific Ocean by the Generic Mapping Tool (GMT) scripting toolset used to process and model data sets. The study goal is to perform geomorphological modelling by the comparison of two segments of the trench located in northern (Peruvian) and southern (Chilean) parts. The aim of the study is to perform automatic digitizing profiles using GMT and several scripting modules. Orthogonal cross-section profiles transecting the trench in a perpendicular direction were automatically digitized, and the profiles visualized and compared. The profiles show variations in the geomorphology of the trench in the northern and southern segments. To visualize geological and geophysical settings, a set of the thematic maps was visualized by GMT modules: free-air gravity anomaly, geoid, geology and bathymetry. The results of the descriptive statistical analysis of the bathymetry in both segments show that the most frequent depths for the Peruvian segment of the Peru-Chile Trench range from -4,000 to -4,200 (827 recorded samples) versus the range of -4,500 to -4,700 m for the Peruvian segment (1,410 samples). The Peruvian segment of the trench is deeper and its geomorphology steeper with abrupt slopes compared to the Chilean segment. A comparison of the data distribution for both segments gives the following results. The Peruvian segment has the majority of data (23%) reaching 1,410 (-4,500 m to -4,700 m). This peak shows a steep pattern in data distribution, while other data in the neighbouring diapason are significantly lower: 559 (-4,700 m to -5,000 m) and 807 (-4,200 m to -4,400 m). The Chilean segment has more unified data distribution for depths of -6,000 m to -7,000 m. This paper presents GMT workflow for the cartographic automatic modelling and mapping deep-sea trench geomorphology.

Open access
Political borders in Polish territory according to the Soviet atlas of 1940

Abstract

The author presents Karmannyj Atlas Mira (Pocket Atlas of the World) which was published in Leningrad in 1940. It shows political borders existing in Polish territory at that time. Those borders resulted from the Soviet-German agreement reached in August and September 1939 in Moscow (the Molotov−Ribbentrop pact). On the maps in the Atlas the territories of central Poland are described as “Oblast Gosudarstvennych Interesov Germanii” (Area of the National Interest of Germany). The maps were reprinted in the article in the original version and underwent a historical, political and geographical analysis.

Open access
Selected qualities of mobile maps for indoor navigation

Abstract

The map is the key element in any navigation system. The dynamic growth of indoor navigation systems requires improvements in quality not only of positioning systems but also of maps of building interiors. Most emergent solutions in this field do not use cartographic knowledge. Cartographic methodology for representing building interiors is still in its initial stages of development. Its proper use may, however, be of great importance to the effectiveness of indoor navigation. The author presents important features that indoor mobile maps should possess, for both the data model and the presentation method to be used. In this context, the question of the contemporary definition of a map is also discussed.

Open access
Application of artificial neural networks in predicting voter turnout based on the analysis of demographic data

Abstract

The author presents the results of research on the use of artificial neural networks in predicting voter turnout. He describes the principles of operation of artificial neural networks, as well as detailed results of two machine learning methods used to predict voter turnout. The research resulted in creation of a functional model that allows for prediction of voter turnout results with a considerable degree of accuracy. The entire research process was carried out using the cartographic research method.

Open access
Computerization of cartographic publishing activity – an outline of the problem exemplified by the former monopolist in Poland

Abstract

The post-1989 transition from a centrally planned economy to a free-market economy generated new investment opportunities in Poland, heavily impacted by computerization. The article analyses the genesis, course and effects of implementation of computerization in a cartographic publishing house which spent several decades operating on a typical Central and Eastern European market. It also highlights the multi-dimensional nature of this process, presenting it in the context of political and socio-economic changes. The author indicates that the factors hindering efficient implementation of computerization were the very qualities which in the past determined the enterprise’s market potential: a great reserve of source and technical materials for publishing maps, efficient technological facilities, experienced employees and the management who sought modernization, but underestimated the potential of computerization and had to deal with its own psychological barriers related to the issue.

Open access
Methodology of reconstruction of the Old-Polish road network as exemplified by the historic Lublin Voivodship

Abstract

The aim of the author is to present the methodology of reconstruction of the Old-Polish transport network as exemplified by the historic Lublin Voivodship. The author discusses the research method and procedure of reconstructing the road routes and locations of transport facilities on the basis of text sources and old maps of varied content and geometric accuracy. The adopted methodology uses GIS tools to analyse and verify data from both cartographic and descriptive sources. The analysis is based on the retrogressive approach, as most of the cartographically reliable sources come from the early 19th century.

The presented research procedure consists of three stages: preparation and processing of source material, registration of source information, and finally, its harmonization. The research procedure consists of two main steps: 1) identification (initial identification of the object and verification of its existence); 2) geometrisation (determination of geometrical parameters of the object, followed by their verification, and confirmation of the object’s course or location in the spatial database).

Open access
Spatio-temporal dynamics of vegetation cover in North-West Algeria using remote sensing data

Abstract

Land cover change is the result of complex interactions between social and environmental systems which change over time. While climatic and biophysics phenomena were for a long time the principal factor of land transformations, human activities are today the origin of the major part of land transformation which affects natural ecosystems.

Quantification of natural and anthropogenic impacts on vegetation cover is often hampered by logistical issues, including (1) the difficulty of systematically monitoring the effects over large areas and (2) the lack of comparison sites needed to evaluate the effect of the factors.

The effective procedure for measuring the degree of environmental change due to natural factors and human activities is the multitemporal study of vegetation cover. For this purpose, the aim of this work is the analysis of the evolution of land cover using remote sensing techniques, in order to better understand the respective role of natural and anthropogenic factors controlling this evolution.

A spatio-temporal land cover dynamics study on a regional scale in Oranie, using Landsat data for two periods (1984–2000) and (2000–2011) was conducted. The images of the vegetation index were classified into three classes based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values and analysed using image difference approach.

The result shows that the vegetation cover was changed. An intensive regression of the woody vegetation and forest land resulted in -22.5% of the area being lost between 1984 and 2000, 1,271 km2 was converted into scrub formations and 306 km2 into bare soil. On the other hand, this class increased by around 45% between 2000 and 2011, these evolutions resulting from the development of scrub groups with an area of 1,875.7 km2.

Open access