Much has been written about dreaming, but deep, dreamless sleep still seems to receive little attention within cultural studies and social science. This article analyses Georges Perec's A Man Who Sleeps and Ottessa Moshfegh's My Year of Rest and Relaxation in terms of the phantasm of metamorphosis enabled by sleep. These two novels show that the polarity of waking and dreaming can be relativized and shifted to the polarity between waking-dreaming/sleeping: This shift becomes particularly productive when it comes to the question of losing and finding ones identity, but also when we try to shed light on the relationship between (ideological or biographical) subjectification and self-overcoming. At the centre of this article is the notion of the sovereignty of sleep, which could allow both day life and dream life to be lifted out of joint.
Selection is a key element of the cartographic generalisation process, often being its first stage. On the other hand it is a component of other generalisation operators, such as simplification. One of the approaches used in generalization is the condition-action approach. The author uses a condition-action approach based on three types of rough logics (Rough Set Theory (RST), Dominance-Based Rough Set Theory (DRST) and Fuzzy-Rough Set Theory (FRST)), checking the possibility of their use in the process of selecting topographic objects (buildings, roads, rivers) and comparing the obtained results. The complexity of the decision system (the number of rules and their conditions) and its effectiveness are assessed, both in terms of quantity and quality – through visual assessment. The conducted research indicates the advantage of the DRST and RST approaches (with the CN2 algorithm) due to the quality of the obtained selection, the greater simplicity of the decision system, and better refined IT tools enabling the use of these systems. At this stage, the FRST approach, which is characterised by the highest complexity of created rules and the worst selection results, is not recommended. Particular approaches have limitations resulting from the need to select appropriate measurement scales for the attributes used in them. Special attention should be paid to the selection of network objects, in which the use of only a condition-action approach, without maintaining consistency of the network, may not produce the desired results. Unlike approaches based on classical logic, rough approaches allow the use of incomplete or contradictory information. The proposed tools can (in their current form) find an auxiliary use in the selection of topographic objects, and potentially also in other generalisation operators.
This article explores the media environment in Turkmenistan from a comparative perspective, analyzing periods when this Central Asian nation was ruled by President Saparmurat Niyazov and his successor Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov. It examines critical trends of the media system’s development since the early 1990s and onward based on the political culture established under the ruling of these two state leaders. The paper argues that media plays a primary role in building a cult of personality of Saparmurat Niyazov, which was further implemented and developed by the administration of Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov. A case study of the Turkmen TV channels, in particular, is focused on styles of presenting materials, the language and propaganda techniques (clichés, slogans, labels), used to promote the cult of personality. The article analyzes the behaviors of the constructors and supporters of the cult of personality using the concept of the political culture in authoritarianism. Thus, the paper outlines that with some moderate dynamics in the media system, President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov continues to strictly control media – the policies established by his predecessor, who used methods of total control and censorship of all media outlets in the country.
The subject of this study is the characterization of the rights and possible obligations of a spouse of a partner of a limited liability company. Participation in a company with limited liability belonging to one of the spouses sometimes enters into joint property, and in the event of the cessation of this communion, it is divided. The company’s share belongs to the inheritance property.
On 10th April 2010 Polish Air Force Tu-154 carrying the President of the Republic of Poland Mr. Lech Kaczyński, the First Lady Maria Kaczyńska and 92 other high Polish officials and members of the crew, crashed in Smolensk. Following the crash, Polish and Russian governments by series of acts and omissions agreed for the investigation procedure according to the Chicago Convention from 1944, nothwithstanding the existence of the binding Polish-Russian agreement from 1993 applicable to military aircrafts.
The main aim of the study is to analyze posthumous problems that concern the victims of the Smolensk disaster in the context of positive obligations of the state. The first element of the analysis will concern the standards of dealing with the bodies of disaster victims as soon as they occur. The second aspect will include the obligation to notify of death along with other obligations and information on victims. Then, issues related to the transport of corpses and the opening of coffins will be described, and finally the regulations regarding uninterrupted burial. The analysis of the above issue presented in the work will be carried out taking into account regional human rights protection standards and the ECtHR’s judicial practice. Both soft and hard law standards will be included in the analysis.
The main aim of this analysis is the synthetic reconstruction of the standards of European Court of Human Rights concerning the procedural aspect of the right to life, and particularly the obligation of conducting an effective investigation in the context of the Polish Air Force Tu-154 air crash in Smolensk on 10th April 2010.
The right to life in the system of the European Convention of Human Rights has a particular character. It derives mostly from its paramount importance. Due to the character of the sphere guaranteed by the right to life, the European Court of Human Rights notices the need of protecting it, both in material and procedural aspect. This is also the reason why article 2 of the ECHR is backed up by the wide variety of positive obligations.
The standards of article 2 of the ECHR and state’s positive obligations in this respect are fully applicable in relation to the air crash of the presidential Tu-154. State’s obligations focus on both material and procedural aspect of incident causing death. The air crash of Tu-154 concerns particularly the obligation to conduct adequate and effective official investigation. This obligation concerns both Polish and Russian authorities.
The main aim of this research is to analyse which obligations are applicable in respect of this particular air crash.