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Damjan Klobčar, Maja Lindič and Matija Bušić

Abstract

This paper presents an overview of additive manu­facturing technologies for production of metal parts. A special attention is set to wire arc additive manufac­turing (WAAM) technologies, which include MIG/MAG welding, TIG welding and plasma welding. Their advan­tages compared to laser or electron beam technologies are lower investment and operational costs. However, these processes have lower dimensional accuracy of produced structures. Owing to special features and higher productivity, the WAAM technologies are more suitable for production of bigger parts. WAAM technology has been used together with welding robot and a cold metal transfer (CMT) power source. Thin walls have been produced using G3Si1 welding wire. The microstructure and hardness of produced structures were analysed and measured. A research was done to deter­mine the optimal welding parameters for production of thin walls with smooth surface. A SprutCAM software was used to make a code for 3D printing of sample part.

Open access

Ohanyiri C. Chiemezie and Omotowo B. Aminat

Abstract

Geochemical studies of claystone deposits from the Patti Formation in the southern Bida Basin, north-Cen­tral Nigeria, were carried out on representative sam­ples to determine the basin’s depositional conditions, provenance and tectonic setting. The localities within the study area included Gegu, Ahoko, Ahoko-Etigi, Omu and Idu. Semi-quantitative phase analysis using the Rietveld method and X-ray powder diffraction data revealed that the claystone samples had prominent kaolinite with other constituents such as quartz, illite-mus­covite, K-feldspar, pyrite, marcasite, anatase, rutile and gorceixite. Enrichment of Al2O3, Ba, Th, Sr, Cr and La suggests that these elements are primarily controlled by the domi­nant clay minerals. Geochemical parameters such as U, U/Th, Ni/Co, V/Cr and Cu/Zn ratios strongly implied that these claystones were deposited in an oxidising environment. Provenance deducing ratios for felsic, mafic and basic igne­ous rocks were compared. Al2O3/TiO2 ratio suggested intermediate to felsic rocks as the probable source rocks for the claystone samples; however, Y/Ni, Cr/V, La/Sc and Th/Sc ratios suggested a felsic progenitor. The tectonic discrimination diagram showed that the samples’ plot was within the region specified for passive margin-type tectonic setting.

Open access

Alexandra Herg and Kurt Stüwe

Abstract

In order to constrain tectonic models for the nature of the Eoalpine high pressure belt at the eastern end of the Alps, we investigate the formation pressure of metamorphic rocks along a profile between the Koralpe and the well-known UHP rocks of the southern Pohorje mountains. Rocks from three different regions are considered: (i) the rocks of the southernmost Koralpe to the north, (ii) the rocks of the Plankogel Unit between the Plankogel detachment and the Drava valley and (iii) the rocks between the Possruck range and the southern Pohorje mountains. In the Koralpe, pelitic rocks record a formation pressure around 15 – 18 kbar, as reported in the literature. For the Plankogel Unit, we derive pressures between 7.1 ± 1.95 kbar and 11.5 ± 3.42 kbar at 650 °C and recognize only a single Eoalpine metamorphic event. For the high grade rocks of the Pohorje mountains, we derive peak metamorphic pressures (explored with the garnet-muscovite-kyanite-quartz assemblage) that rise from 16.2 ± 3.45 kbar (at 700°C) in the north, to 23.9 ± 2.49 kbar (at 700 °C) in the south. There, we also recognize a later lower pressure event that is derived from pressure calculations with the full equilibrium assemblage. This lower pressure event yields similar conditions around 10 ± 2 kbar at 650 °C for the entire north-south transect within the Pohorje mountains. Peak metamorphic conditions in the Koralpe and Pohorje regions are matched by a continuous field gradient of about 1.3 kbar per 10 kilometers distance corresponding to a depth increase of about 0.5 km per kilometers distance assuming lithostatic conditions. We suggest that this supports that the two units may be interpreted together in terms of a 45° dipping subducting plate. Above this subducting plate, it is inferred that a slab was extracted that was located between the Plankogel Unit and the high pressure rocks, causing a first exhumation stage that is associated with buoyant upwards tilting of the subducted slab to mid crustal levels. Within this model, the Plankogel Unit was located in the hanging wall of the extracted slab and the Plankogel detachment forms the suture of the extracted slab. Exhumation from mid crustal levels to the surface during a 2nd stage occurred due to erosion and normal faulting. This normal faulting is responsible for some 10 km of upward displacement of the Pohorje mountains relative to the Koralpe and ultimately for the current distribution of lithologies on a map scale.

Open access

Pitsanupong Kanjanapayont, Peekamon Ponmanee, Bernhard Grasemann, Urs Klötzli and Prayath Nantasin

Abstract

The NW–trending Three Pagodas shear zone exposes a high–grade metamorphic complex named Thabsila gneiss in the Kanchanaburi region, western Thailand. The quartz mylonites within this strike–slip zone were selected for strain analysis. 2–dimensional strain analysis indicates that the averaged strain ratio (Rs) for the lower greenschist facies increment of XZ–plane is Rs = 1.60–1.97 by using the Fry’s method. Kinematic vorticity analysis of the quartz mylonites in the shear zone showed that the mean kinematic vorticity number of this increment is Wk = 0.75–0.99 with an average at 0.90 ±0.07. The results implied that the quartz mylonites within the Three Pagodas shear zone have a dominant simple shear component of about 72% with a small pure shear component. A sinistral shear sense is indicated by kinematic indicators from macro– to micro–scale. We conclude that the Three Pagodas shear zone deformed in the process of sinstral shear–dominated transpression, which is similar to the Mae Ping shear zone in the north.

Open access

Reihaneh Roshanak, Farid Moore, Alireza Zarasvandi, Behnam Keshavarzi and Reinhard Gratzer

Abstract

The Qorveh-Takab travertines, which are connected to thermal springs, are situated in the northwest of the Sanandaj- Sirjan metamorphic zone in Iran. In this study, the travertines were investigated applying petrography, mineralogy and isotope geochemistry. Oxygen and carbon isotope geochemistry, petrography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis were used to determine the source of the CO2 and the lithofacies and to classify the travertines. Isotope studies, morphological and mineralogical observations and distribution of travertines revealed that the travertines of the Qorveh-Takab could be of thermal water origin and, therefore, belong to the thermogene travertine category. These travertines are usually massive with mound-type morphology and are essentially found in regions with recent volcanic or high tectonic activity. The measured δ13C values of the travertines indicate that the δ13C of the CO2 released from the water during travertine deposition, while the source of the CO2 in the water springs seems to have been of crustal magmatic affinity. These travertines are divided into two lithofacies: (1) crystalline crust travertine and (2) pebbly (phytoclastic travertine with pebble- size extraclasts) travertine. δ18O and δ13C values of travertines are -0.6 to -11.9 (‰VPDB) and +6.08 to +9.84 (‰VPDB), respectively. A probable reason for the heavy carbon isotope content observed in these deposits is the presence of algae microorganisms, which was verified by SEM images. Fissure ridges, fluvial crusts with oncoids, and mound morphological features are observed in the study area. Based on the petrographic and SEM criteria, Qorveh-Takab travertines are classified into four groups: (1) compacted, (2) laminated, (3) iron-rich spring deposit and (4) aragonite-bearing travertines. Stable isotope compositions of Turkish travertines are largely similar to the travertines in the study area.

Open access

A.A. Alabi, A.O. Adewale, J.O. Coker and O.A. Ogunkoya

Abstract

Geophysical and geotechnical techniques were used to investigate the sub-surface information of a proposed site for a hostel construction at Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. Ten vertical electrical sounding (VES) stations were adopted. Typical sounding curves obtained include the HA, KH, AKH and KQH types, of which the AKH-type consists of 40% of the survey points, and a maximum of five geo-electric sub-surface layers were delineated. Laboratory analyses were performed to investigate particle size distribution, Atterberg limit, compaction limit, California bearing ratio (CBR) and specific gravity. The CBR revealed that all soil samples, except L4, are mechanically stable and have high load-bearing capacity. The Atterberg limit test and the geo-electric section showed that the second layer of VES 4 is composed of sandy clay with high plastic index and low liquid limit, which may pose a threat to the foundation of any engineering structure. VES locations 5, 6 and 8 were identified as high groundwater potential zones suitable for optimum groundwater abstraction. The study area is suitable for both shallow and deep foundations, however VES 4 and VES 5 require reinforcement.

Open access

Petra Lukeneder and Alexander Lukeneder

Abstract

Lower Jurassic ammonites were collected from deep-water limestones of the Tannscharten section, southwest of Reichraming (Northern Calcareous Alps, Upper Austria). The outcrop provides a rich Upper Sinemurian (Lower Jurassic) ammonite fauna of the Allgäu Formation. The area is situated in the westernmost part of the Schneeberg Syncline in the north of the Reichraming Nappe (High Bajuvaric Unit). The ammonite fauna consists of seven different genera, each apparently represented by 1-2 species. Echioceratids are the most frequent components (Echioceras, Leptechioceras, Paltechioceras), followed by the phylloceratids (Juraphyllites, Partschiceras) and oxynoticeratids (Gleviceras, Paroxynoticeras). Juraphyllites libertus, Partschiceras striatocostatum, Gleviceras paniceum, Echioceras quenstedti, Echioceras raricostatoides, Paltechioceras boehmi, Leptechioceras meigeni, Leptechioceras macdonnelli and Paltechioceras oosteri are new for the Schneeberg Syncline and allow for the first time a detailed biostratigraphy of the Echioceras raricostatum zone. The assemblage is correlated with other faunae from Austria, Germany, United Kingdom, France, Switzerland and Romania. The cephalopod fauna consists of a mix of elements from the Northwest European Province and the Mediterranean Province. The detailed biostratigraphy based on ammonites is presented here.

Open access

Mathias Harzhauser, Oleg Mandic, Matthias Kranner, Petra Lukeneder, Andrea K. Kern, Martin Gross, Giorgio Carnevale and Christine Jawecki

Abstract

Sarmatian and Pannonian cores, drilled at the western margin of the Vienna Basin in the City of Vienna, reveal a complex succession of marine and lacustrine depositional environments during the middle to late Miocene transition. Two Sarmatian and two Pannonian transgressive-regressive sequences were studied in detail. Identical successions of benthic faunal assemblages and similar patterns in magnetic susceptibility logs characterise these sequences. This allows a correlation of the boreholes over a distance of ~3.5 km across one of the major marginal faults of the Vienna Basin. Biostratigraphic data, combined with rough estimates of sedimentation rates, reveal large gaps between these sequences, suggesting that only major transgressions reached this marginal area. In particular, during the Sarmatian-Pannonian transition, the basin margin completely emerged and turned into a terrestrial setting for at least 600 ka.

Open access

N. Varadarajan and B.K. Purandara

Abstract

Waterlogging and salinity are the common features associated with many of the irrigation commands of surface water projects. This study aims to estimate the root zone salinity of the left and right bank canal commands of Ghataprabha irrigation command, Karnataka, India. The hydro-salinity model SaltMod was applied to selected agriculture plots at Gokak, Mudhol, Biligi and Bagalkot taluks for the prediction of root-zone salinity and leaching efficiency. The model simulated the soil-profile salinity for 20 years with and without subsurface drainage. The salinity level shows a decline with an increase of leaching efficiency. The leaching efficiency of 0.2 shows the best match with the actual efficiency under adequate drainage conditions. The model shows a steady increase, reaching the levels up to 8.0 decisiemens/metre (dS/m) to 10.6 dS/m at the end of the 20-year period under no drainage. If suitable drainage system is not provided, the area will further get salinised, thus making the land uncultivable. We conclude from the present study that it is necessary to provide proper drainage facilities to control the salinity levels in the study area.

Open access

Oluseun Adetola Sanuade, Abayomi Adesola Olaojo, Adesoji Olumayowa Akanji, Michael Adeyinka Oladunjoye and Gabriel E. Omolaiye

Abstract

This geophysical study was carried out to determine the occurrence of phosphate nodules in the Oshoshun Formation of the Dahomey Basin, Southwestern Nigeria. The electrical resistivity method, comprising 1D vertical electrical sounding (VES; using Schlumberger array) and 2D geoelectrical imaging (using Wenner array), was used to determine the nature and depth of occurrence of the phosphate nodules. Six profile lines were established within the study area, and inverted sections were generated from the apparent resistivity data using DIPRO inversion algorithm. Five VES points were also acquired in the study area, and Win- Resist programme was used to process and interpret the field resistivity data. Four pits were dug along the profiles to verify the interpreted results. The results obtained by both techniques reveal similar geoelectric units: the top soil, clay, clayey sand and clay at different depths. These layers host pockets of phosphate nodules (78-≥651 Ωm) with varying thicknesses. The strong correlation between the lithology profiles obtained from the pits and the interpreted results of the inverted apparent resistivity sections demonstrates the efficacy of the electrical resistivity method in characterising phosphate occurrence within the formation.