Results of research of the identification of flooding as a result of groundwater table fluctuations on the example of the valley of the River Vistula, with the use of multi-spectral Sentinel-2 images from the years 2017–2018 are presented. An analysis of indexes of water use, calculated on the basis of green, red and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands, for extraction of water objects and flooded areas was carried out. Based on the analyses conducted, a mapping method was developed, using three water indexes (MNDWI Modified Normalised Difference Water Index, NDTI Normalised Difference Index and NDPI Normalised Difference Pond Index). Results show that the 10 metre false colour composite RNDTIGNDPIBMNDWI obtained significantly improved submerged extractions more than did individual water indexes. Moreover, the 10-m-images of MNDWI and NDPI, obtained by the sharpening High Pass Filter (HPF), may represent more detailed spatial information on floods than the 20-m-MNDWI and NDPI, obtained from original images.
Johanna Holmberg, Michał Bukała, Pauline Jeanneret, Iwona Klonowska and Jarosław Majka
The Western Gneiss Region (WGR) of the Scandinavian Caledonides is an archetypal terrain for high-pressure (HP) and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism. However, the vast majority of lithologies occurring there bear no, or only limited, evidence for HP or UHP metamorphism. The studied Midsund HP granulite occurs on the island of Otrøy, a locality known for the occurrence of the UHP eclogites and mantle-derived, garnet-bearing ultramafics. The Midsund granulite consists of plagioclase, garnet, clinopyroxene, relict phengitic mica, biotite, rutile, quartz, amphibole, ilmenite and titanite, among the most prominent phases. Applied thermodynamic modelling in the NCKFMMnASHT system resulted in a pressure–temperature (P–T) pseudosection that provides an intersection of compositional isopleths of XMg (Mg/Mg+Fe) in garnet, albite in plagioclase and XNa (Na/Na+Ca) in clinopyroxene in the stability field of melt + plagioclase + garnet + clinopyroxene + amphibole + ilmenite. The obtained thermodynamic model yields P–T conditions of 1.32–1.45 GPa and 875–970 °C. The relatively high P–T recorded by the Midsund granulite may be explained as an effect of equilibration due to exhumation from HP (presumably UHP) conditions followed by a period of stagnation under HT at lower-to-medium crustal level. The latter seems to be a more widespread phenomenon in the WGR than previously thought and may well explain commonly calculated pressure contrasts between neighboring lithologies in the WGR and other HP–UHP terranes worldwide.
Izabela Jamorska, Katarzyna Kubiak-Wójcicka and Arkadiusz Krawiec
The aim of the present study is to monitor changes in the location of the groundwater table in the catchment area of the River Gwda within the Quaternary and Neogene water-bearing level over a 35-year period, between 1981 and 2015. In addition, on account of very diverse total annual precipitation levels in particular parts of the catchment, attempts were made to determine the influence of precipitation on the location of the groundwater table. By correlating groundwater level and meteorological parameters (precipitation), it was discovered that precipitation in the previous year made the largest impact on the groundwater table. Moreover, low precipitation totals in the southern part of the catchment are not discernible in groundwater table fluctuations, which is linked to the location of the observation well within the drainage zone as well as to water ascension from deeper aquifers.
Anna Vozárová, Katarína Šarinová, Dušan Laurinc, Elena Lepekhina, Jozef Vozár, Nickolay Rodionov and Pavel Lvov
The Late Paleozoic sedimentary basins in the Northern Gemericum evolved gradually in time and space within the collisional tectonic regime of the Western Carpathian Variscan orogenic belt. The detrital zircon age spectra, obtained from the Mississippian, Pennsylvanian and Permian metasediments, have distinctive age distribution patterns that reflect the tectonic setting of the host sediments. An expressive unimodal zircon distribution, with an age peak at 352 Ma, is shown by the basal Mississippian metasediments. These represent a relic of the convergent trench-slope sedimentary basin fill. In comparison, the Pennsylvanian detrital zircon populations display distinct multimodal distributions, with the main age peaks at 351, 450, 565 Ma and smaller peaks at ~2.0 and ~2.7 Ga. This is consistent with derivation of clastic detritus from the collisional suture into the foreland basin. Similarly, the Permian sedimentary formations exhibit the multimodal distribution of zircon ages, with main peaks at 300, 355 and 475 Ma. The main difference, in comparison with the Pennsylvanian detrital zircon assemblages, is the sporadic occurrence of the Kasimovian– Asselian (306–294 Ma), as well as the Artinskian–Kungurian (280–276 Ma) igneous zircons. The youngest magmatic zircon ages nearly correspond to the syn-sedimentary volcanic activity with the depositional age of the Permian host sediments and clearly indicate the extensional, rift-related setting.
Modern hydrogeological research uses numerical modelling, which is most often based on the finite difference method (FDM) or finite element method (FEM). The present paper discusses an example of application of the less frequently used FEM for simulating groundwater circulation in the vicinity of the intake at Świniarsko near Nowy Sącz. The research area is bordered by rivers and watersheds, and within it, two well-connected aquifers occur (Quaternary gravelly-sandy sediments and Paleogene cracked flysch rocks). The area was discretized using a Triangle generator, taking into account assumptions about the nature and density of the mesh. Rivers, wells, an irrigation ditch and infiltration of precipitation were projected onto boundary conditions. Conditions of groundwater circulation in the aquifer have been assessed based on a calibrated model, using water balance and a groundwater level contour map with flow path lines. Application of the program based on FEM, using smooth local densification of the discretization mesh, has allowed for precise mapping of the location of objects that significantly shape water circulation.
Damian Pietrzak, Jarosław Kania, Ewa Kmiecik and Katarzyna Wątor
Knowledge of transport patterns of chemicals in groundwater is essential for environmental assessment of their potential impact. In the present study, the mobility of a chloride tracer injected into three different soils was investigated, using column experiments. The column tests were performed under steady-state conditions to determine parameters of chloride migration through soils. Based on breakthrough curves, pore-water velocity, dispersion coefficient and dispersivity constant were calculated for each soil sample using CXTFIT/STANMOD software. Pore-water velocity was in the range of 0.31 cm/min for fine sand, to 0.35 cm/min for silty sand and to 0.40 cm/min for vari-grained sand. The highest values of dispersion coefficient and dispersivity constant were observed for silty sand (0.55 cm2/min and 1.55 cm, respectively), while the lowest value was found for fine sand (0.059 cm2/min and 0.19 cm, respectively). Column experiments for chlorides (conservative tracer) are a preliminary stage for further research which will be undertaken to investigate migration parameters of selected neonicotinoids (reactive tracers) through different soils.
Monika Okońska, Marek Marciniak, Joanna Zembrzuska and Mariusz Kaczmarek
At present, concentrations of pharmaceuticals in surface and ground waters are low; however, even low concentrations of certain substances may prove very harmful. One of such pharmaceutical drugs is diclofenac, a popular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). For this reason, it is important to determine its mobility in groundwater and to estimate parameters of migration. Authors conducted column tests for two porous media: an artificial one, consisting of glass granules, and a natural one, i.e., sandur sand obtained from a site north of the city of Poznań (Poland). During the test, impulse breakthrough curves of chloride ions and diclofenac were recorded. The results were used to identify a specific sorption model and to determine values of migration parameters. Solutions of the inverse problem using optimisation methods and of equations of mathematical migration models were carried out in a MATLAB environment. Based on test results, the mobility of diclofenac is shown to be very high and comparable to that of chloride ions. The tests also revealed a slight and irreversible sorption of diclofenac on grains of both porous media.
Ryszard Hoc, Andrzej Sadurski and Zenon Wiśniowski
In parallel with intensified development of the Polish part of Uznam Island, there is an increase in the demand for drinking water in this area. This island ranks among areas with low water resources, which at the present time are allocated. In order to create the prospect of increased groundwater resources, a concept has been developed that allows for the recovery of part of the freshwater from drainage systems which discharge into the waters of Szczecin Lagoon or the River Świna. The present article discusses the secondary use of water from drainage systems for supply of the Wydrzany resource area. The notion of using water from the White Bridge pumping station was considered the most promising. The catchment area of the polder is 880 ha, 280 ha of which are located on Polish territory. The White Bridge pumping station transfers water from the polder, which it leads to the Peat Channel which, in turn, drains water gravitationally into Szczecin Lagoon. Here, results of simulations aimed at the use of drainage water to improve upon groundwater resources in the “Wydrzany” intake are discussed. On the basis of these simulations of artificial water supply to the intake, an increase of available resources by up to 50 per cent may be expected.
The present paper discusses the results of an analysis of the impact of land use on the distribution of pharmaceuticals in groundwater samples collected during a pilot study of the contents of pharmaceuticals and hormones in ground-water taken from the national groundwater monitoring network of the Polish Geological Institute - National Research Institute. Samples were collected during monitoring campaigns from 160 groundwater monitoring sites in various land use types in 2016 and 2017. Samples were analysed for a total of 34 active substances, including natural and synthetic oestrogen hormones, cardiovascular and respiratory medications, analgesics and anti-inflammatories, antidepressants, antimicrobial drugs and anti-epileptics. Our study confirmed the presence of pharmaceuticals in 53 per cent of ground-water samples taken. Data show variations in the distribution of pharmaceuticals depending on land use type, which can thus be employed in pressure analysis and identification of sources of pollution.