As a type of natural energy resource, wind power is used in the modern implementation of wind-assisted technologies as a method for reducing the fuel consumption and environmental pollution of ocean-going ships. In order to promote the full usage of ocean wind energy for cargo ships, an innovative type of ship propulsion-assisted wing sail is proposed in this paper. The propulsion efficiency of this new wing sail can be increased by enlarging its area in both the transverse and vertical directions in good weather conditions, and it can be folded up automatically in poor weather conditions, improving the sailing safety of the ship. The sail parameters relating to the gaps and rotation angles between different parts of the wing sail are compared, and the values giving the best aerodynamic performance are identified using CFD simulation technology. The results for the lift and drag coefficients for the new wing sail at different attack angles are also compared with those of traditional aerofoil sails, including an arc-shaped rigid sail and a variable-camber sail proposed in 2015. From the viewpoint of the sailing performance of the vessel, our results demonstrate that this new type of wing sail has good aerodynamic performance and can reduce fuel costs for commercial vessels.
The design of a floating, innovative device for river water aeration and conversion of mechanical energy to electrical energy required the analysis of a number of geometrical and dynamic features. Such an analysis may be carried out on the basis of existing methods of numerical fluid mechanics. Models of pressures, forces and torques characteristic for the conversion of watercourse energy were developed for two basic concepts of innovation. These pressures, forces and torques were calculated, designed, and experimentally determined for the variable geometric form and dimensions of the designed working elements of the innovative roller-blade turbine rotor.
Problems regarding the security of maritime infrastructure, especially harbours and offshore infrastructure, are currently a very hot topic. Due to these problems, there are some research projects in which the main goal is to decrease the gap and improve the methods of observation in the chosen area, for both in-air and underwater areas. The main goal of the paper is to show a new complex system for improving the security of the maritime infrastructure by means of many methods of observation – such as thermovision, optical devices, and radar systems – generally by means of an electromagnetic wave as a carrier of information in the air and acoustical methods in water. The system can be applied to the protection of maritime infrastructure as well as the coastal zone.
The lifting surface model is widely used in screw propeller design and analysis applications. It serves as a reliable tool for determination of the propeller blade mean line and pitch distribution. The main idea of this application was to determine the blade shape that would satisfy the kinematic boundary condition on its surface with the prescribed bound circulation distribution over it. In this paper a simplified lifting surface method is presented – in which the 3D task for the entire blade is replaced by a set of 2D tasks for subsequent blade section profiles.
This paper presents a description and the results of experimental studies of the deformation, friction and structural damping occurring in foundation bolted joints of propulsion plant components and auxiliary machinery that is rigidly mounted on sea-going ships. The rigid mounting of these devices to the ships’ structural foundations can be implemented in a traditional way, i.e. on chocks made of metal (usually of steel), or in a modern way, i.e. on chocks cast of resin, specially designed for this purpose. The main goal of this study is to perform a comparative analysis of these two solutions and to give a scientific explanation for why chocks cast of resin perform better in machinery seatings than the steel chocks traditionally used for this purpose. The paper consists of two parts. Part I presents the details of the rigid mountings of machinery to the foundations, and contains the results of experimental studies performed on a model of a foundation bolted joint with a traditional steel chock. Part II contains the results of similar studies carried out for a model of a bolted joint with a modern chock cast of resin. Next, a comparative analysis and evaluation of the results obtained for both investigated bolted joints was carried out, and conclusions were formulated to highlight important aspects of the problem from the point of view of science and engineering practice.
Modernisation of the existing river fleet adapted for the local conditions of the Middle and Lower Vistula can be considered as a solution to slow down the progressive decrease of river transport in this area. The implementation of technical improvements, smart technologies and enhancement of transport performance may partially solve the problem of growing demand for multimodal transport of containers and oversized loads in a shorter perspective than the expected period of planned revitalisation of the river. The paper presents investigations on the modernisation of river convoys adapted to the current navigational conditions of the Lower Vistula. The different options have been discussed by the authors with river fleet operators and the best recognised solution was agreed to be the use of river convoys combining modernised motor barges and the pushed barges previously used in this area. Improvement of the transport profitability, reduction of fuel consumption, air pollution and noise can be achieved at minimum costs by modernisation of the main power-propulsion systems of outdated motor barges and the implementation of innovative steering systems on pushed barges. The demand for power-propulsion and manoeuvring performance of modernised convoys is discussed in the paper.
The construction of a water intake along the wharf shoreline can realise the intensive and comprehensive utilisation of the shoreline. However, since the water intake will increase the lateral flow at the wharf and also the hydrodynamic forces on ships, it will bring risks to ships mooring and leaving. The effects of the water intake on ships are studied using a physical model, numerical model and standard formulas. The results show that it leads to an increase of the hydrodynamic forces acting on the ship when the standard formulas are used to calculate the forces without considering the water level difference between the two sides of the ship. The results of the physical model are closer to the real situation. Measures that can effectively reduce the influence of the water intake on ships are proposed by increasing the distance between the wharf front and the front of the water intake as well as the depth of the water inlet windows.
This paper represents the first stage of research into a multi-objective method of planning safe trajectories for marine autonomous surface ships (MASSs) involved in encounter situations. Our method applies an evolutionary multi-objective optimisation (EMO) approach to pursue three objectives: minimisation of the risk of collision, minimisation of fuel consumption due to collision avoidance manoeuvres, and minimisation of the extra time spent on collision avoidance manoeuvres. Until now, a fully multi-objective optimisation has not been applied to the real-time problem of planning safe trajectories; instead, this optimisation problem has usually been reduced to a single aggregated cost function covering all objectives. The aim is to develop a method of planning safe trajectories for MASSs that is able to simultaneously pursue the three abovementioned objectives, make decisions in real time and without interaction with a human operator, handle basic types of encounters (in open or restricted waters, and in good or restricted visibility) and guarantee compliance with the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea. It should also be mentioned that optimisation of the system based on each criterion may occur at the cost of the others, so a reasonable balance is applied here by means of a configurable trade-off. This is done throughout the EMO process by means of modified Pareto dominance rules and by using a multi-criteria decision-making phase to filter the output Pareto set and choose the final solution
In the design process of offshore steel structures, it is typical to employ commercial calculation codes in which simulation and evaluation of results are performed on the basis of the available standards (e.g. API, DNV, Lloyds). The modeling and solution rely on finite element methods and cover the simulation of the structure’s properties along with the influence of the marine environment – sea currents, wave and wind loading, as well as the influence of vibrations, buoyancy and accompanying mass of water. Both commercial and open source mathematical modeling software which is available nowadays allows for cost effective and flexible implementation of advanced models for offshore industrial structures with high level of credibility and safety. The models can be built to suit task-specific requirements and evaluated on the basis of the selected criterial system best suited to the needs of the customer. Examples of methodology for environmental and structural model development are presented, along with simulation results covering a wide scope of data, ranging from stress and deformation to resonant characteristics and issues of technological feasibility.
The statistics invariably show that most onboard fires originate in the engine room. In hazardous conditions, fires can spread to other rooms of the ship and cause the loss of human life, and can cause the ship to be out of service or lost completely. To prevent these serious consequences, the engine room crew should be aware of hazards and ways to prevent them. It is also advisable to support their routine activities and actions in critical situations with an appropriate management system.
For this reason, a survey was conducted at the beginning of 2019 of engine room crew members employed by a European shipowner, as a contribution to an analysis of fire safety management. Based on the results of the survey, some of the elements of the fire safety management system of the ship engine room are described. A properly constructed system that is understandable and accepted by the crew is one of the most important factors in increasing fire safety on a ship. Familiarisation with adequate procedures can significantly contribute to the successful prevention of accidents. This paper also proposes a checklist based on suggestions by the crew, which may be helpful in onboard fire prevention.