Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 494 items for :

  • Business and Economics x
Clear All
Open access

George Mark Onyango

Abstract

Kisumu has had a massive growth of informal settlements forming a belt around the urban core. These settlements house more than half of the city’s population. Because of the unplanned nature of these areas there has been very poor road infrastructure development, with narrow, unpaved roads constituting the road infrastructure. This situation has limited the opportunities for regular urban transport minibuses providing transport for the majority of the urban poor who live in these settlements. The coping mechanism and the development of alternative coping strategies are explored and assessed to see how effective they are in providing public transport for this majority of unserviced urban population.

Open access

E. Gunilla Almered Olsson

Abstract

Strategies and action plans for sustainable food provisioning and urban food security are in progress in many urban regions both in the global North and South. A number of urgent challenges need to be confronted such as increasing uncertainty and unpredictability related to stronger dependence on a global market for food import, ongoing political unrest and environmental conflicts, increasing resource scarcity and climate warming making food production hazardous. There is an increased vulnerability with respect to food security for human societies, both in developing and developed countries. The food security dimension of access to healthy food is related to equality and poverty and is relevant for cities in the North via the segregation challenges. The food system issue is well-suited for assessing sustainable development since food provisioning is both a multiscale and cross-sectorial issue and thus addresses more than the three dimensions of social, economic and environmental sustainability. How is the planning for sustainable food strategies in urban regions in Europe concordant with the United Nations Global Sustainable Development Goals and with the transition towards sustainable futures? This paper deliberates on using the food system issues for sustainability transition, drawing on the forthcoming 2018 IPBES (Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services) work on pathways for sustainable futures and a recent survey of existing urban food system strategies. Against this background, some reflections are given relevant for the ongoing work on a local urban food strategy for the city of Gothenburg, Sweden.

Open access

Marcin Wójcik, Karolina Dmochowska-Dudek, Pamela Jeziorska-Biel and Paulina Tobiasz-Lis

Abstract

This article addresses the problematic county of Wieruszow-a peripheral area of Poland, constituting a classic case of historical development away from urban agglomerations, additionally burdened by the stigma of a former near-border location, and later (including today) functioning at the fringe of an administrative district. The area in question exemplifies structural transformations associated with changes in patterns of accessibility to large urban agglomerations following the coming into operation of a key expressway. The work detailed here has sought to analyse the aforementioned area’s position vis-a-vis accessibility, as set against the background of factors justifying the description of “inner periphery”. An essential element in accounting for any strategy for overcoming this peripherality takes the form of the results of in-depth interviews carried out by the authors. Joint consideration of the two perspectives mentioned, i.e. the structural (showing the position of a given area in relation to its proximate (regional) and ultimate (national) environments), and the social (i.e. the expert assessment), ultimately allowed for an assessment of opportunities and threats as far as the overcoming of peripherality in its geographic and social dimensions is concerned.

Open access

Davide Marino, Luigi Mastronardi, Agostino Giannelli, Vincenzo Giaccio and Giampiero Mazzocchi

Abstract

The demographic processes of the last decades have led to variations in urban and peri-urban territorial configurations, questioning the patterns of traditional productive localisation. They have begun to outline new perspectives related to proximity to trading and commerce sites as well as to the services offered by the city. Business strategies, such as multifunctionality and diversification, have begun to consider these new possibilities that, at a larger scale, have triggered the process of territorialisation. The study analyses the influence of proximity to the city on the strategies of farms diversifying income through short food chains, with the aim of identifying the prevailing behaviours adopted in three different concentric areas at the urban centre of gravity: peri-urban, belt and rural. The study involves a dataset constituted by 217 farms, where each farm has been associated with a set of explanatory variables that outline some structural, social and economic characteristics. The sample has been segmented through a hierarchical cluster analysis, which allowed us to identify 5 groups of farms, after having reduced the number of variables through PCA (Principal Component Analysis). The results show that short food chains and, more generally, AFNs, are based on strategies alternative to those of traditional chains, and which involve a different economic dimension of the same chains and the construction of a different place-based agro-food system, also envisaging a re-localisation of space near the final market.

Open access

Jana Vlčková, Nikola Kaspříková and Markéta Vlčková

Abstract

The level of technological specialisation in the regions of Germany is assessed in this paper, as well as how such specialisation has evolved over time. Further, in three selected regions (Munich, Düsseldorf and Oberes Elbtal/Osterzgebirge), the knowledge space is explored in detail and compared to existing smart specialisation strategies. Average relatedness and knowledge space based upon EPO patent applications are used to measure the specialisation and technology trajectories of the German regions. Between three periods 1988–1992, 1998–2002 and 2008–2012, the specialisation of Germany based on EPO patent applications increased by 10%, despite a decline in many regions. Machinery and transportation industries have increased their significance. The assessment of regional smart specialisation strategies in the three German states shows that the methodology in terms of the identification of prospective industries is largely variegated and insufficiently developed. More attention should also be given to the choice of an appropriate geographical level of aggregation for analysis. Knowledge relatedness and knowledge complexity could be used as methodological tools for selecting prospective industries in smart specialisation strategies.

Open access

Mirek Dymitrow and Keith Halfacree

Abstract

It is increasingly appreciated how all societies contain many ‘wicked problems’ or socio-cultural challenges that are multidimensional, hard to pindown and consequently extremely challenging to solve. Obtaining functional and inclusive societal organisation is not a simple matter of ‘doing it’ by subscribing to winning formulae as there are, for example, many choices to be made in the process. Moreover, given that conceptual frameworks always guide thoughts, judgments and actions, how we relate to ‘sustainability’ specifically becomes relevant if we aim to achieve a more liveable society. This journal issue expressly engages with the consequent need to recognise this complexity. It assembles a set of ‘brave’ takes on far-advanced problems bedevilling conventionally conceptualised paths towards sustainability. Arguing against oversimplification that comes from domination of polarising concepts and unquestioned practices and rhetorics, the aim is to foster explorations into new territories from which we may learn. Ultimately, the desire to deconstruct pernicious divisions and create new hybrid syntheses can progress sustainability.

Open access

Stina Hansson

Abstract

Urban planning is increasingly focusing on the social aspect of sustainability. The 2014 report Differences in Living Conditions and Health in Gothenburg shows important and increasing inequalities between different parts of the city, a development seen in cities across the world. The city of Gothenburg has set as its goal the decrease in inequalities by joining forces with civil society, the private sector, academia and people living in the city. Participation and inclusion become important tools in city planning processes for the authorities to understand local conditions, particularly to understand the living conditions of people in socio-economically marginalised areas, whose voices are rarely listened to, and to enable their active participation in shaping outcomes. In this article, we explore the role of trust in improving urban planning, and in shaping possibilities for participation that is positively experienced, in the sense that it increases people’s sense of control over their neighbourhoods. Based on empirical work in Hammarkullen, a socio-economically marginalised area in Gothenburg, the article shows how specific local configurations of trust have an impact on local development plans. It further shows how participatory practices coarticulate with the local social situation to shape outcomes in a certain way. Grounded in the empirical study, the paper argues for the importance of understanding the local conditions of trust and how they interact with planning processes in shaping outcomes and future possibilities of cooperation. Further, the paper argues for the need to take the local conditions of trust into account early in the planning phase.

Open access

Madeleine Eriksson and Aina Tollefsen

Abstract

Increased commercial interest in wild berries in Northern Sweden’s resource periphery has connected places and people to a global berry supply chain that produces goods for world markets. As a part of a wider global food chain, every link in this chain is deeply insecure and partly marked by secrecy and mystification. Contemporary representations of the Norrlandic landscape tend to obscure and hide economic conflicts and power relations connected to resource exploitation and corporate concentration, neglecting workers and local communities. This paper examines how globalization, neoliberal policies and the development of supply chain capitalism drive changes in labour markets and migration policies, which in turn shape/and are shaped by both material and immaterial aspects of the Norrlandic landscape. While many studies of global food chains have focused on abstract patterns of chain governance, business economics and logistics, we analyse the wild berry industry by centring on migrant workers and the production of a distinct spatiality through interconnectedness and historical conjuncture, with a starting point in a particular place in the interior of Norrland. We thereby contribute to a different narrative of the Norrlandic landscape, making visible power and labour relations.

Open access

Shelley Kotze

Abstract

Contemporary approaches to biodiversity conservation within South Africa depart from community-based initiatives which seek to combine biodiversity conservation with socio-economic development. This paper employs a grounded theory approach to discuss the values of local communities and the management body (CapeNature), with regards to Driftsands Nature Reserve, Cape Town, by way of exploring the ways in which community-based conservation is being achieved within this case study. The findings conclude that the support and environmental education provided by CapeNature is going some way to addressing the needs of community-based conservation. Although the geographical location and demographics of the area produce a number of challenges for this approach, this research outlines the pathways for these challenges to be turned into benefits through even greater involvement with community-based conservation.

Open access

Leszek Butowski

Abstract

As a subject of scientific investigation, evaluations of the attractiveness of tourist destinations have had a relatively long history, particularly among geographers and regional economists. Based on mathematical and psychological principles and using methods that combine the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) approach, this research project constructs an evaluation structure used for the assessment of European coastal and offshore areas for sailing tourism. A case study with a three-level evaluation structure has been defined and tested. It contains: at the top of the hierarchy an overall objective defined as the attractiveness of the European coastal and offshore areas for sailing tourism; six criteria of evaluation (on the second level); and ten coastal areas (at the bottom level). This structure covers almost all the coasts around Europe, as they were the subjects of evaluation and comparison. The evaluation was carried out by a group of experts who made the assessment taking into account previously determined criteria with weights. The findings indicate that the AHP-PROMETHEE method may be a useful tool to evaluate the attractiveness of different destinations. It can be also used for practical purposes, particularly to determine strengths and weaknesses, as well as the competitive position, of given coastal areas in relation to others.