The article attempts to develop a preliminary practical framework for urban criteria in terms of the population, economy and spatial location of the smallest towns in Poland. Despite being of little significance, the fact that they lie near the border between being rural settlements and towns makes them an interesting subject for research and more detailed analysis. The current phenomenon of urban status being obtained by ever-smaller settlements is causing conceptual disorder. Therefore, the article may serve as an early contribution to a discussion about the need to define and unify urban criteria on a national scale. The qualitative and descriptive guidelines contained in official acts are insufficient and too general, which is why quantitative methods were used in the present research. Despite the limited data available, research on the topic of urbanity has proven the imperfection of the Polish administrative system and confirmed the premise that town status may be conferred inappropriately in numerous cases.
Joanna Maria Badach, Anna Stasiak and Andrzej Baranowski
In civil societies, urban movements are one of the tools in the process of spatial governance. In Poland, urban activism is beginning to develop together with a budding participation in public life. Therefore, there is a need to assess the scope and effects of the urban movements’ actions. The aim of the study was to determine and evaluate their impact on the spatial development in three Polish cities - Poznań, Gdańsk and Gdynia, especially in regard to the procedures in local urban planning and the process of participation. On the basis of the data collected during research and community interviews conducted in these cities, the following factors were analysed: the background and current profile of urban movements, the extent, regularity and effectiveness of their actions, the planning and spatial development initiatives undertaken, their cooperation with the local authorities and their contribution to the enhancement of participatory mechanisms.
There are many classifications of atmospheric circulation types. In Poland, the most important one, used by Polish weather services, is the classification of circulation types developed by Lityński. This paper proposes four modifications to the currently used algorithm for determining atmospheric circulation types. The proposed algorithms have been compared and it has been shown which one produces a catalogue of circulation types in which the division of the distribution of the values of the three indices (the zonal index Ws, meridional index Wp and cyclonicity index Cp) into three classes is the closest to being equally likely. In 1986-2015, the classification scheme that deemed to be the best, differed in above 19% of cases from the currently used classification.
Agnieszka Joanna Sosnowska
Plant succession is quite a common phenomenon in Poland, especially in agricultural landscapes. At the turn of the 21st century there was a significant increase in the area of fallow lands. That increased the area occupied by ruderal and segetal vegetation. The development of vegetation on post-agricultural lands transforms soils. The aim of this paper is to determine changes in vegetation and soil properties that occur as a result of secondary succession on post-agricultural lands in loess landscapes
Karolina Marta Szaton
Temporary use as a subject of work should be understood as temporary development or use of land and facilities, in a way that allows the best use of spatial resources at a given time and place. The author takes up the topic of temporary use being an intentional element of strategy in the design and planning of space. Analysis of practical applications focuses on the depiction of models of design and planning processes, the element of which is the temporary use of space and overall transformation processes, as well as features and functions of temporary uses. The researched practices concern processes composed of various elements, eg mutual relations of temporary use with permanent development. The analysis of good practices indicates a significant strengthening of the potential for temporary use, if it is implemented through a network of broad connections and the integration of various activities and environments.
The paper presents conclusions of the survey conducted in Gdańsk in October 2017. The study aimed to compare travel times between the largest residential districts in Gdańsk and the area of the business-academic center. The research was aimed at showing time losses on the commuting trips and their organizational and infrastructural causes, which lead to the extension of the actual travel time. Based on the identified time losses and their causes, recommendations regarding further organizational and investment work were presented to improve the competitiveness of public urban transport and bicycles in relation to the cars.
Arnold Bernaciak, Agnieszka Rzeńca and Agnieszka Sobol
Participatory budgeting has become a vital tool in making urban spatial planning more community oriented. Examination of how participatory budgeting has evolved is a pertinent subject in theoretical research and in practical applications. Projects proposed by local communities improve the quality of life in cities and enhance benefits offered by public spaces. The main goal of the paper is to present an overview and examine projects that transform public space, which have been implemented in selected Polish cities, namely in Katowice, Łódź, and Poznań within the framework of participatory budgeting exercise.
Our research has demonstrated that in many cases participatory budgeting has acted as a catalyst of a variety of local bottom-up initiatives addressing public space in researched cities. It is thanks to the engaged and creative people at the local level that new functions which improve the quality of life are developed in cities.
Hana Yasin, Zerihun Kebebew and Kitessa Hundera
The southwest Ethiopian Afromontane moist forests are recognized as one of the biodiversity hotspots as they are the centres of origin and domestication of Arabica coffee. But they are under threat due to deforestation and conversion to coffee farms. Coffee agroforests are believed to buffer the natural forest from these threats. The study was conducted to investigate the importance of coffee agroforest adjacent to Belete forest southwest Ethiopia. Vegetation data were collected from 68 plots (34 each) and socioeconomic data were collected from 136 households (68 each). The results showed that statistically, there were no significant differences between the natural forest and adjacent coffee agroforests in the species composition, species richness and Shannon diversity index of the woody species(P > 0.05). The socioeconomic benefit result showed a number of forest products that are collected from the coffee agroforest. There were statistically significant differences between the natural forest and coffee agroforest in the forest income and the Simpson Diversification Index of the households (p < 0.05). Coffee agroforests contribute to the conservation of woody species through the retention of woody species and reducing pressure on the natural forest. Therefore, the socioeconomic benefits of coffee agroforests must take into account the conservation of woody species in linking the conservation and development arena.
The study presents characteristics of the bathing season on the basis of stationary daily measurements of surface water temperature in the lakes in the period 1971-2015 conducted by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. These measurements were taken in the littoral zone (from bridges) of 28 lakes at 7:00 (6:00 GMT). In order to determine representativeness of these measurements, the author also documents the comparison of water temperature with its values at various points of the lake and its daily course. Stationary surface water temperature measurements provided the basis for the characteristics of the average, the earliest and the latest dates of the beginning and end of the bathing seasons, their duration and mean water temperatures in the summer months. Hence, a new parameter (tsum) is introduced to define the mean surface water temperature for the summer months (June, July and August), and compare water temperature in lakes over a larger area (the Baltic Sea catchment area). The most favorable conditions for bathing in Polish lakes are found in the western part of the Wielkopolskie Lakeland (lakelands: Łagowskie, Poznańskie, Sławskie) from the beginning of July to the end of August, when the surface water temperature in lakes generally exceeds 18°C. Furthermore, the best conditions for bathing in the water are from 10:00 to 18:00. When choosing a place to relax, holidaymakers should also consider bathing locations, infrastructure and safety conditions.