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The conversion of heights of the benchmarks of the detailed vertical reference network into the PL-EVRF2007-NH frame

Abstract

The paper describes the problem of conversion of heights to the European Vertical Reference Frame 2007 for Poland (PL-EVRF2007-NH). The subject of the study is height data, and especially the detailed vertical reference network. The aim of the article is to present an alternative method of conversion to the one recommended by the Polish Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography. The proposed approach is characterised by a low implementation cost while maintaining the required accuracy.

The publication is illustrated by the case of Kętrzyn district (in the north-east part of Poland). The local reference network was converted from Kronstad’60 to PL-EVRF2007-NH in 2017.

Open access
Financing Low-income Housing in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe: Implications for the Right to the City and Inclusivity

Abstract

Accessing finances for housing has been a major problem for people on low-incomes and this has been weighing heavily on them as they try to access housing. Financial institutions in the city of Bulawayo are failing to come up with financial products that suit low-income clients. There are an estimated 110000 low-income residents among the estimated 250000 residents of Cowdray Park low-density residential area in Bulawayo. This has also affected their right to the city as they have been excluded from the housing delivery system. There are so many initiatives that have been available to those on a low-income but these initiatives have rarely benefited the urban poor of the city. This research has examined how the financial services that exist in the housing sector have been crafted to benefit the urban poor. The research employed a mixed methods approach to the inquiry, where a questionnaire was the main quantitative method used and in-depth interviews and observations were the qualitative methods that complemented it. The research found that there are various financial services that are available in Zimbabwe, but these financial facilities rarely help the urban poor. The majority of the poor have been managing without any financial support and this has been stalling their access to housing. Most housing products are fashioned along neo-liberal economic principles that have very little to offer the urban poor. This has therefore denied the urban poor in the city of Bulawayo their right to the city. Most cities in Zimbabwe are struggling to satisfy their housing demand as they have long housing waiting lists. Research therefore recommends the crafting of financial facilities that are best targeted on the urban poor, and are specially adapted to their financial conditions.

Open access
Luanda’s Slums: An overview based on poverty and gentrification

Abstract

Slum redevelopment is occurring at a rapid pace in many African cities. This paper examines the urban development of contemporary Luanda, the capital of Angola. Central to this examination is an analysis of the city’s slums according to Foucault’s concept of governmentality. The focus is on the chaotic urban development that has resulted from the civil war and on the effects of poverty and gentrification in many of Luanda’s slums. The policy of violence towards slum population adopted by the municipality appears to define a technology of domination, the subjection of the individual to the formation of the state. However, with the high earnings obtained from oil production, the country clearly has the resources needed to fund investments in electricity and utility systems. The continuing persistence of slums and a housing policy based on neglect signifies a form of governmentality, adopted as a means of government coercion and a way of dominating the poor population. The paper closes with a set of policy implications for action.

Open access
The Nexus Between Urbanisation and Human Empowerment: Income Group Based Findings of Bidirectional Causality

Abstract

The economic and social drivers of democratisation and the emergence and establishment of democratic institutions are longstanding themes of academic discourse. Within this broad body of literature, it has been argued that the process of urbanisation is also conducive to the emergence and consolidation of democracy through a number of different channels. Cities offer better access to education and facilitate organised public action and the demand for more democratic rule and respect of human rights. The nexus between urbanisation and human rights is the theme that is taken up in the present paper. Using a sample of 123 countries for the period 1981–2011, the paper examines empirically the association between urbanisation and human empowerment using the Cingranelli-Richards Index. In broad terms, the findings reported herein do not point to a strong nexus across all income groups. Nevertheless, there is evidence suggesting the presence of such a statistically significant positive association in specific cases.

Open access
Riding without a ticket: geography of free fare public transport policy in Poland

Abstract

A policy instrument promoting a free fare public transport policy (FFPT) has recently been put into practice in 66 municipalities across Poland. By contributing to the academic debate on the concept of FFPT (e.g. Kębłowski 2019), the main goal of this paper is to create a typology of the schemes where FFPT is in operation in Poland based on analyses of a geographical mapping of these projects. This study analyses how different municipalities are implementing the concept in order to define a typology of FFTP projects and to understand how the development landscape of the urban transport system is changing in the light of free fare transport policies, topics which are not fully covered in the academic literature. The findings confirm that there is a new dynamic in the development of urban transport systems and permit the identification of key characteristics of this trend. Besides the typology of implementation of FFPT, the study also presents an up-to-date inventory of FFPT projects with the key characteristic features of each system. Although the study does not provide specific recommendations regarding the introduction of a FFPT policy, it represents a good starting point for future and more detailed studies. Such studies are necessary in order to understand the role of FFPT not only in the context of the development of a given transport system, its impact on modal split, and travel behaviour, but also to uncover the different politics which lie behind them.

Open access
The Rise and Fall of the Celtic Tiger and the evolution of an Urban System: 1996–2011

Abstract

During the 1990s the Celtic Tiger era began in the Republic of Ireland. This article tracks the response of the Irish Urban System to that remarkable period of growth ended abruptly with the Global Economic Crisis of 2008. Using Small Area Population Statistics from Ireland’s Central Statistics Office for the years 1996, 2002, 2006 and 2011 it was possible to record growth across the towns and cities of Ireland that constituted the Irish Urban System. The location, size, type and rates of change were recorded and mapped with a view towards discovering the extent to which the urban hierarchy and the spatial distribution was being altered, and by what geographical processes. Over 15 years the national population grew by 26% with most of that growth taking place in urban centres. A clear diffusion outwards from the Dublin region is noticeable and the capital’s role in systemic change is explored alongside other factors. The article highlights the changing nature of growth over time and, based on the empirical observations made, identifies a sequence of clear stages in the growth of the urban system. The article concludes with a proposal for a Model of Urban System Evolution under conditions of Rapid Economic Growth based on the distinct phases, or stages, of growth identified in Ireland’s towns and cities from 1996–2011.

Open access
Deformation analysis in central west Bulgaria using triangulation and GPS data

Abstract

The article discusses a method applied for combining the results of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and 75-year old triangulation measurements to estimate the crustal movements in central western Bulgaria region. It was examined for joint analysis based on the results of GNSS with angular measurements of the first order triangulation network in Bulgaria during the period 1923–1930 year. As a result of the processing of GNSS and angular measurements, horizontal velocities of 15 points, strain rates, and rotation rates have been obtained. The results show dominating N–S extension at a rate of 1–2 mm/y and the deformation is not uniformly distributed over the studied area. The obtained results indicate the possibility of using old angular measurement of first-order triangulation points, together with GNSS data, to obtain estimates of the horizontal crustal movements.

Open access
Assessment of the Forest Health Through Remote Sensing Techniques in Valea Roșie Natura 2000 Site, Bihor County, Romania

Abstract

The present study deals with the estimation of the evolution tendency of the environmental stage of a protected habitat with predominant forest vegetation, during a short period of time, using techniques specific to remote sensing. Therefore, two important spectral indexes were tested while assessing the health of the forest ecosystems: i.e. the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Structure Insensitive Pigment Index (SIPI). The period of time taken into consideration for the study was, 2013 - 2019, having used medium resolution satellite photos, Landsat 8 OLI, having initially undergone standard pre-processing operations (resize data, radiometric calibration, atmospheric correction). The satellite images modified according to the Top of Atmosphere Reflectance and corrected topographically resulted into getting values for the two before mentioned indexes. The quantity-spatial results obtained, correlated to the monthly values of the precipitations processed in order to obtain the SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index), mostly reveal, in what SIPI and also NDVI are concerned, a slight decrease in the quality of the forest on the analysed area in the sense that the vegetation stress is increased under meteorological factors, expressed differently depending on the morphometric and pedological parameters of the habitat.

Open access
Building Construction Labour Productivity in Arid Climate Environment

Abstract

Productivity is a significant aspect of construction industry that plays vital role for success and failure of any construction project. This industry generates 11% to 13% of GDP all around the globe and the cost of labour in any building project is 20% to 35% of the cost of Building. On daily basis labour utilizes 30% of time on productive activities rest 70% of the time is ruined in non-productive activities, there are multi factors which are affecting the labour production in construction industry hence this study provides an overview of productivity, Total Factor productivity, method used to measure accurate productivity in construction projects. The objective of this study is find out percentage up to what extent labour production is affected due to weather conditions, however this study is carried out in arid climate region in Month of June 2018, where minimum temperature was recorded 26.0 Celsius degree at 7:30 AM and Maximum was 47.80 Celsius degree at 3:00 PM. A descriptive survey research design approach was adopted using continuous observation method of study. Project work study manual served as the research instrument to collect the data on selected building sites for 30 working days. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statics. The results show that average monthly production of mason gang was recorded with less production of 28.759%, Carpentry gang with average monthly loss of production 16.74% & steel fixer gang had average monthly loss of production was 12.188. This concludes that prior to signing the contract for construction project. The location, environment, topography of region, capacity of construction operatives must be kept in mind to decide the proper timeline for the successful of project.

Open access
Calculation of temperature distribution and rheological properties of the lithosphere along transect IV in the Western Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region

Abstract

2D integrated modelling algorithm was used to calculate the temperature distribution in the lithosphere along the transect IV located in the Western Carpathian-Pannonian Basin area. Based on the determined temperature field and given rheological parameters of the rocks, it was possible to calculate the strength distribution for both compressional and extensional regimes, construct the strength envelopes for chosen columns of the main tectonic units of the model, and thus construct a simple rheological model of the lithosphere along transect IV. The obtained results indicate decrease of the lithospheric strength from the European platform and the Western Carpathians towards the Pannonian Basin. The largest strength (valid for all tectonic units) can be observed within the upper crust with its maxima on the boundary between upper and lower crust, decreasing towards lower crust and disappearing in the lithospheric mantle, suggesting mostly rigid deformation occurring in the upper crust. A local increase in the values of strength can be observed in the eastern segment of the Western Carpathians where crustal thickening accompanies the lithospheric thickening (formation of the lithospheric root), unlike the previous models along transects I and II, that pass through the western segment of the Western Carpathians and their lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary is almost flat and therefore no accompanying crustal thickening is observed and the decrease in strength is slow and steady.

Open access