Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 626 items for :

Clear All
Open access

Damjan Klobčar, Maja Lindič and Matija Bušić

Abstract

This paper presents an overview of additive manu­facturing technologies for production of metal parts. A special attention is set to wire arc additive manufac­turing (WAAM) technologies, which include MIG/MAG welding, TIG welding and plasma welding. Their advan­tages compared to laser or electron beam technologies are lower investment and operational costs. However, these processes have lower dimensional accuracy of produced structures. Owing to special features and higher productivity, the WAAM technologies are more suitable for production of bigger parts. WAAM technology has been used together with welding robot and a cold metal transfer (CMT) power source. Thin walls have been produced using G3Si1 welding wire. The microstructure and hardness of produced structures were analysed and measured. A research was done to deter­mine the optimal welding parameters for production of thin walls with smooth surface. A SprutCAM software was used to make a code for 3D printing of sample part.

Open access

Anna Bazan-Krzywoszanska and Michał Bereta

Abstract

Records of municipal planning documents directly affect the land use. In this way, the market price of the land is also shaped. Awareness of the economic and social consequences of adapting specific solutions is the primary argument that should condition the local policy in terms of spatial planning. The research results indicate that the network trained with attributes which do not describe a property value by its price was able to estimate it with acceptable and satisfactory results. The possibility to use artificial multilayer networks in spatial policy decision-making seems well founded. The research results show the relevance of the assumption that using them for modeling can be helpful in selecting the most advantageous variant of planning arrangements in a local law document which determines the land use and development, therefore impacts its value.

Open access

Ohanyiri C. Chiemezie and Omotowo B. Aminat

Abstract

Geochemical studies of claystone deposits from the Patti Formation in the southern Bida Basin, north-Cen­tral Nigeria, were carried out on representative sam­ples to determine the basin’s depositional conditions, provenance and tectonic setting. The localities within the study area included Gegu, Ahoko, Ahoko-Etigi, Omu and Idu. Semi-quantitative phase analysis using the Rietveld method and X-ray powder diffraction data revealed that the claystone samples had prominent kaolinite with other constituents such as quartz, illite-mus­covite, K-feldspar, pyrite, marcasite, anatase, rutile and gorceixite. Enrichment of Al2O3, Ba, Th, Sr, Cr and La suggests that these elements are primarily controlled by the domi­nant clay minerals. Geochemical parameters such as U, U/Th, Ni/Co, V/Cr and Cu/Zn ratios strongly implied that these claystones were deposited in an oxidising environment. Provenance deducing ratios for felsic, mafic and basic igne­ous rocks were compared. Al2O3/TiO2 ratio suggested intermediate to felsic rocks as the probable source rocks for the claystone samples; however, Y/Ni, Cr/V, La/Sc and Th/Sc ratios suggested a felsic progenitor. The tectonic discrimination diagram showed that the samples’ plot was within the region specified for passive margin-type tectonic setting.

Open access

Edward Nowak and Waldemar Odziemczyk

Abstract

An optimally designed geodetic network is characterised by an appropriate level of precision and the lowest possible setup cost. Reliability, translating into the ability to detect blunders in the observations and higher certainty of the obtained point positions, is an important network characteristic. The principal way to provide appropriate network reliability is to acquire a suitably large number of redundant observations. This approach, however, faces limitations resulting from the extra cost. This paper analyses the possibility of providing appropriate reliability parameters for networks with moderate redundancy. A common problem in such cases are dependencies between observations preventing the acquisition of the required reliability index for each of the individual observation.

The authors propose a methodology to analyse dependencies between observations aiming to determine the possibility of acquiring the optimal reliability indices for each individual observation or groups of observations. The suggested network structure analysis procedures were illustrated with numerical examples.

Open access

Damian Biel and Tomasz Lipecki

Abstract

Nowadays, the growing popularity of terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) allows to obtain a point cloud of many industrial objects along with classic surveying. However, the quality and model’s accuracy in comparison to a real shape seem to be a question, that must be further researched. It is crucial especially for Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis, which, being a part of technical design, estimate the values of construction’s dislocation and deformation. The article describes objects such as headgear with steel support and 4-post headframe with steel sheers. Both supports and sheers were modelled basing on point clouds. All the models were compared to the point cloud. The differences in models’ shape were calculated and the maximal values were determined. The results’ usefulness in FEM analysis was described.

Open access

Przemysław Kuras, Łukasz Ortyl, Tomasz Owerko and Aleksandra Borecka

Abstract

The article presents an example of supplementing geotechnical monitoring with geodetic observations. The experimental flood embankment built within the ISMOP project (Information Technology System of Levee Monitoring) was subjected to continuous monitoring based on built-in measuring sensors. The results of geodetic monitoring used for observation of earth-filled flood embankment subjected to external loads are presented in the paper. The tests were carried out on an experimental flood embankment forming a closed artificial water reservoir. The observations were carried out for two purposes. The first was long-term monitoring, which was aimed to determine the behaviour of the newly built embankment. The second purpose was to check the reaction of the levee to the simulated flood wave, caused by filling and draining the reservoir. In order to monitor the displacements of the earth-filled embankment, it was necessary to develop the proper methodology. For the needs of research works, an appropriate network of 5 reference points and 48 survey markers has been designed and established. The periodic measurements were carried out using precise robotic total station. The stability of the reference frame was each time checked and displacements of survey markers were determined based on it. The final results allow to reveal the reaction of levee to external loads. The displacement values were referred to the course of the filling and draining experiment to indicate the relationship between them. In the field of long-term monitoring the results clearly imply the dominance of displacements outside the reservoir for points located on the embankment, in contrast to points on the crest and foreground, which do not show significant movements. On the other hand, in the field of testing the embankment reaction to the flood wave, obtaining reliable results was possible thanks to high-accuracy geodetic measurements. Small displacement values, often at the level of their determination errors, were averaged for groups of points with the same height of foundation. A sizable number of points allows to perceive some tendencies and the relation between embankment soaking, hence its movement directions can be noticed. During periods when the levee was still saturated with water, slight movements outside the reservoir were revealed. On the other hand, the following period of drying caused movement in the opposite direction.

Open access

Ryszard Nejman, Maciej Łepkowski, Anna Wilczyńska and Beata J. Gawryszewska

Abstract

In the authors’ view, the existing urban planning system is not favourable to the temporality and variability of urban wastelands, which complement traditional urban greenery through a range of functions such as; gardens, meeting spaces, places to walk the dog etc. Consequently, the aim of the paper is to investigate functions and possible scenarios for the development of urban wastelands in Poland. The methods used in the research include a comparative assessment of wasteland case studies from Warsaw and Tarnów and a comparison of possible development scenarios based on case studies from different cities across Europe. Wastelands were researched to establish their location, their functions, the distance from inhabited areas and the types of other green areas located within a 5 min. isochrone from the surrounding housing area. Case studies of development scenarios were researched to establish their changing functions, the continuity of design and the algorithm of creation. The authors conducted qualitative interviews, mapping, inventories of territorial marks (makeshift benches or other constructions made by users showing the way they ‘own’ the area), investigation of local development plans and literature reviews to gather the data used. The collation of results has led to the creation of a ‘wastelands toolkit’ – a tool dedicated to urban planners and decision makers.

Open access

Katarzyna Nikorowicz-Zatorska

Abstract

The present paper focuses on spatial management regulations in order to carry out investment in the field of airport facilities. The construction, upgrades, and maintenance of airports falls within the area of responsibility of local authorities. This task poses a great challenge in terms of organisation and finances. On the one hand, an active airport is a municipal landmark and drives local economic, social and cultural development, and on the other, the scale of investment often exceeds the capabilities of local authorities.

The immediate environment of the airport determines its final use and prosperity. The objective of the paper is to review legislation that affects airports and the surrounding communities. The process of urban planning in Lodz and surrounding areas will be presented as a background to the problem of land use management in the vicinity of the airport. This paper seeks to address the following questions: if and how airports have affected urban planning in Lodz, does the land use around the airport prevent the development of Lodz Airport, and how has the situation changed over the time?

It can be assumed that as a result of lack of experience, land resources and size of investments on one hand and legislative dissonance and peculiar practices on the other, aviation infrastructure in Lodz is designed to meet temporary needs and is characterised by achieving short-term goals. Cyclical problems are solved in an intermittent manner and involve all the municipal resources, so there’s little left to secure long-term investments.

Open access

Daria Łucka

Abstract

The focus of the following article will be New Urbanism, an urbanistic movement which originated in the United States and advocated the establishment and reinforcing of communities through planning activities. Its proponents claim that the proper design of space leads to the development of a local community. The article will discuss the main principles of the New Urbanism approach, such as its social doctrine and the concept of neighbourhood. Possible benefits of New Urbanism and critical arguments regarding it will also be analysed.

Open access

Andrzej Bukowski, Marcjanna Nóżka and Marta Smagacz-Poziemska

Abstract

In this article we analyse the socio-spatial contexts and consequences of the practice of car parking in housing estates. Fredrik Barth’s idea of socially constructed boundaries and the theory of social practice form the theoretical basis of our analysis. The empirical material comes from research conducted in 2016 and 2017 in three Polish cities. We analyse the practice of parking in terms of the specific aspect of mobility that is ‘mooring’. The research shows that parking practices influence the structuring of territorial communities in housing estates on two levels: everyday activities, norms and rules, as well as social differences and boundaries in the space occupied by the housing estate.