Exchange of and access to spatial data is the principal goal of any Spatial Data Infrastructure, therefore, one of the key concepts of SDI is interoperability, especially semantic and syntactic. Whereas application schemas and quality issues are one of the aspects that have to be considered to ensure a successful data interchange in SDI.
Two types of application schema are widely used in the European SDI as well as in the Polish SDI. They cover both semantic and syntactic interoperability and are an integral parts of spatial data specifications and relevant regulations in the form of data models. However, working out accurate and correct application schemas may be a challenge.
Additionally, faulty or too complex application schemas can influence the ability for valid data interchange, and consequently, prevent achieving interoperability within SDI. Therefore, the capability to examine and estimate the UML and GML application schemas quality seems to be a worthwhile and important issue in the context of semantic and syntactic interoperability in SDI.
The main subject of this article it to set out the context of performed studies, among others, the role of application schema in the interoperable data exchange, issues related to the concept of quality and its measures.
A geoid or quasigeoid model allows the integration of satellite measurements with ground levelling measurements in valid height systems. A precise quasigeoid model has been developed for the city of Krakow. One of the goals of the model construction was to provide a more detailed quasigeoid course than the one offered by the national model PL-geoid2011. Only four measurement points in the area of Kraków were used to build a national quasigeoid model. It can be assumed that due to the small number of points and their uneven distribution over the city area, the quasigeoid can be determined less accurately. It became the reason for developing a local quasigeoid model based on a larger number of evenly distributed points. The quasigeoid model was based on 66 evenly distributed points (from 2.5 km to 5.0 km apart) in the study area. The process of modelling the quasigeoid used height anomalies determined at these points on the basis of normal heights derived through levelling and ellipsoidal heights derived through GNSS surveys. Height anomalies coming from the global geopotential model EGM2008 served as a long-wavelength trend in those derived from surveys. Analyses showed that the developed height anomaly model fits the empirical data at the level of single millimetres – mean absolute difference 0.005 m. The developed local model QuasigeoidKR2019, similar to the national model PL-geoid2011, are models closely related to the reference and height systems in Poland. Such models are used to integrate GNSS and levelling observations. A comparison of the local QuasigeoidKR2019 and national PL-geoid2011 model was made for the reference frame PL-ETRF2000 and height datum PL-KRON86-NH. The comparison of the two models with respect to GNSS/levelling height anomalies shows a triple reduction in the values of individual quartiles and a mean absolute difference for the developed local model. These summary statistics clearly indicate that the accuracy of the local model for the city of Krakow is significantly higher than that of the national one.
During carbon steel manufacturing, large amounts of electric arc furnace (EAF) slag are generated. EAF slag, if properly treated and processed into aggregate, is an alternative source of high-quality material, which can substitute the use of natural aggregates in most demanding applications in the construction sector, mostly for wearing asphalt courses. In this screening process of high-quality aggregates, a side material with grain size 0/32 mm is also produced, which can be used as an aggregate for unbound layers in road construction. In this study, the environmental impacts of slag aggregate (fraction 0/32 mm) were evaluated in mixed natural/slag aggregates. Different mixtures of natural/slag aggregates were prepared from aged (28 days) and fresh slag, and their environmental impacts were evaluated using leaching tests. It was shown that among the elements, chromium (Cr) was leached from some mixed aggregates in quantities that exceeded the criterion for inert waste. The data from the present investigation revealed that mixed aggregates, prepared from aged slag (fraction 0/32 mm) and natural stone in the ratio 10/90, are environmentally acceptable and can be safely used in unbound materials for road construction.
The alloys from Al–Mg–Si system provide an excellent combination of mechanical properties, heat treatment at extrusion temperature, good weldability, good corrosion resistance and formability. Owing to the high casting speed of rods or slabs, the solidification is rather non-equilibrium, resulting in defects in the material, such as crystalline segregations, the formation of low-melting eutectics, the unfavourable shape of intermetallic phases and the non-homogeneously distributed alloying elements in the cross-section of the rods or slabs and in the entire microstructure. The inhomogeneity of the chemical composition and the solid solution negatively affects the strength, the formability in the warm and the corrosion resistance, and can lead to the formation of undesired phases due to segregation in the material. In this experimental investigation, the cross-sections of the rods from two different alloys of the 6xxx group were investigated. From the cross-sections of the rods, samples for differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at three different positions (edge, D/4 and middle) were taken to determine the influence of inhomogeneity on the course of DSC curve. Metallographic sample preparation was used for microstructure analysis, whereas the actual chemical composition was analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersion spectrometer (EDS).
Hydrogeological assessment of groundwater resources was carried out with a view to evaluate the potential of the aquifers to provide portable water supply and access the distribution of electrical parameters of hydrogeologic units in some areas in Odeda, Ogun State, Nigeria. A geophysical survey using vertical electrical sounding (VES) with the Schlumberger electrode array, with half-current electrode spacing (AB/2) varying from 1 to 132 m was carried out at 30 different stations in the study area. The VES data were interpreted qualitatively and quantitatively. Three-to-five sub-surface layers consisting of topsoil, weathered layer consisting of clay, sandy clay, clayey sand and sand layers, and fractured/fresh basement were delineated. Layer resistivities and thicknesses obtained on the curves within the study area showed one main aquifer type, which is the fractured basement. The longitudinal unit conductance (ranging from 0.049720 to 1.4520000 mhos) of the study area aided the protective capacity to be rated into good, moderate and weak. About 33% of the study area falls within the weak protective capacity, 57% falls within the moderate protective capacity and 10% falls within the good protective capacity.
Heavy mineral component of 13 samples from the Lokoja and Patti Formations, Bida Basin have been studied for their textural characteristics, compositional abundance, maturity and provenance determinations. The suite of heavy minerals encountered is classified as opaque and non-opaque constituents. The non-opaque components include zircon, tourmaline, rutile, garnet, staurolite, epidote, kyanite, titanite, lawsonite, cassiterite, sillimanite, hornblende, hypersthene and andalusite. The assemblage is generally dominated by zircon and tourmaline in the two formations. The constituent heavy minerals identified are dominated by ultra-stable and stable classes, whereas the ZTR indices indicate mineralogical immaturity coupled with textural immaturity of the constituent grains. This suggests the possible dominance of chemical weathering of the source rock. The suites of minerals recovered have been linked to both metamorphic and non-metamorphic crystalline rock origins.
Field, mineralogical and petrochemical studies of the Precambrian Basement Complex rocks around Akungba-Akoko were carried out with the aim of determining their petrology, petrochemical characteristics and petrogenesis. The petrology of Akungba-Akoko area comprises migmatite, granite gneiss and biotite gneiss intruded by biotite granite, charnockite and minor felsic and basic rocks. Seventeen representative samples of the granite gneiss, biotite gneiss, biotite granite and charnockite were collected during field geological mapping of the area for petrographic and geochemical analyses. Modal mineralogy revealed that the granite gneiss, biotite gneiss and granite have assemblages of quartz + feldspar + mica + hornblende + opaques and are granitic in composition. The charnockite is characterized by anhydrous mineral assemblage of quartz + feldspar + biotite + hornblende + pyroxene + opaques. Petrochemical data of the rocks revealed that they are moderately to highly enrich in SiO2, sub-alkaline, peraluminous, magnesian to ferroan and calcic and have K/Rb < 283. The geochemical characteristics and discrimination of the rocks indicated that the granite gneiss and biotite gneiss are orthogneisses formed by metamorphism of igneous protoliths of granitic composition and the biotite granite and charnockite are of igneous/magmatic origin. The biotite granite, charnockite and the igneous protoliths of the biotite gneiss are I-type granitoids formed from crustal igneous-sourced melt(s), while the igneous protoliths of the granite gneiss is a S-type granitoid probably derived from shallow crustal or sedimentary-sourced melt(s). Tectonic discrimination of the rocks indicated that they were formed during a phase of magmatic activity related to collision and subduction.
The world energy demand has become higher with the growing population, which has translated into an increase in emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. For this reason, CO2 capture and storage has been undertaken to purify the atmosphere. For storing this CO2, it is necessary to have wells to inject it (deeper than 800 m); moreover, these wells need to have stability over time, and one of the stability aspects is the protection of steel against corrosion. Considering this aspect, the most common steels (focussed on American Petroleum Institute [API] steels) that can be used in an injector well were studied. The best performance was obtained using a high alloy content of Cr and Ni. Furthermore, the most important parameter analysed when corrosion is studied is the test time, which was modelled to stabilise the corrosion rates. The experiments were undertaken after a general review of different studies that investigated the corrosion of steel when in contact with CO2 in the vapour phase and under supercritical conditions.
The subject of the considerations presented in the article is the question of the criteria according to which the comparables, in the market value estimating process, should be selected. As the most important in the selection of comparative properties, the factor of similarity in relation to the subject property (measured by the Euclidean distance) was considered. As the key issue, the similarity assessment criterion and the influence of the adopted critical value of this criterion on the accuracy of estimates were chosen. The analysis of the above was carried out with taking into account the role of the significance of independent variables (measured by their correlation with the vector of the dependent variable). The results of the simulation tests carried out in the variants set by the criteria adopted were presented. On this basis, it has been shown that there is a potential most relevant solution in the collection of obtainable estimation results. This solution corresponds with the smallest sum of the differences of model prices (accepted as known) and corresponding estimates. The found minimum occurs for a specific layout of the above criterion values only.