Giovanni Coletti, Giulia Bosio, Alberto Collareta, John Buckeridge, Sirio Consani and Akram El Kateb
Acorn barnacles are sessile crustaceans common in shallow-water settings, both in modern oceans and in the Miocene geological record. Barnacle-rich facies occur from polar to equatorial latitudes, generally associated with shallow-water, high-energy, hard substrates. The aim of this work is to investigate this type of facies by analysing, from the palaeontological, sedimentological and petrographical points of view, early Miocene examples from Northern Italy, Southern France and South-western Peru. Our results are then compared with the existing information on both modern and fossil barnacle-rich deposits. The studied facies can be divided into two groups. The first one consists of very shallow, nearshore assemblages where barnacles are associated with an abundant hard-substrate biota (e.g., barnamol). The second one includes a barnacle-coralline algae association, here named “barnalgal” (= barnacle / red algal dominated), related to a deeper setting. The same pattern occurs in the distribution of both fossil and recent barnacle facies. The majority of them are related to very shallow, high-energy, hard-substrate, a setting that represents the environmental optimum for the development of barnacle facies, but exceptions do occur. These atypical facies can be identified through a complete analysis of both the skeletal assemblage and the barnacle association, showing that barnacle palaeontology can be a powerful tool for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction.
Emese Szőcs and Kinga Hips
The paper focuses on the reservoir heterogeneity of a sandstone formation in which the main issue is the evaluation of diagenetic features. Integrated data from field observations as well as petrographic and geochemical analyses from surface and core sections from different structural settings were applied. In the shallow marine Pétervására Sandstone, eogenetic minerals are comprised of calcite, pyrite and siderite; mesogenetic minerals are albite, ankerite, calcite, quartz, mixed layer clays and kaolinite. Dissolution occurred during mesogenetic and telogenetic phases. Ankerite is only present in the core setting, where the sandstone is at ca. 900 m depth and diagenetic calcite predates quartz cementation. Based on stable isotopic values (δ13 CV-PDB −18.3 to −11.4 ‰ and δ18 OV-PDB −9.5 to −7.2 ‰), diagenetic calcite is of mesogenetic origin and was precipitated from fluids migrated along fault zones from the underlying, organic matter-rich formation. In outcrop setting, on the other hand, calcite is present in a larger quantity and postdates quartz cementation. Carbon isotope data (δ13 CV-PDB = −9.9 to −5.1 ‰) indicate less contribution of light isotope, whereas more negative oxygen isotopic values (OV-PDB = −13.1 to −9.9 ‰) likely imply higher temperature of mesogenetic fluids.However, carbon–oxygen isotope covariation can indicate precipitation from meteoric fluid. In this case, further analyses are required to delineate the final model.
Anna Sieczka, Filip Bujakowski and Eugeniusz Koda
The present paper discusses studies related to the preparation of a hydrogeological model of groundwater flow and nitrate transport in an area where a precision farming system is applied. Components of water balance were determined using the UnSat Suite Plus software (HELP model), while the average infiltration rate calculated for the study area equalled 20 per cent. The Visual MODFLOW software was used for the purpose of modelling in the saturated zone. Hydrogeological parameters of the model layers, inclusive of hydraulic conductivity, were defined on the basis of results of column tests that were carried out under laboratory conditions (column experiment). Related to the dose of mineral nitrogen used in precision fertilisation (80 kg N/ha), scenarios of the spread of nitrates in the soil-water environment were worked out. The absolute residual mean error calculated for nitrate concentrations obtained from laboratory and modelling studies equalled 0.188 mg/L, the standard error of the estimate equalling 0.116 mg/L. Results obtained were shown graphically in the form of hydroisohypse maps and nitrate isolines. Conclusions were drawn regarding the possibility of using numerical modelling techniques in predicting transport and fate of nitrates from fertilisers applied in precision agriculture systems.
Kristina Ivančič, Mirka Trajanova, Stjepan Ćorić, Boštjan Rožič and Andrej Šmuc
The Miocene evolution of the area transitional from the Eastern Alps to the Pannonian Basin System was studied through the paleogeographic evolution of the Slovenj Gradec Basin in northern Slovenia. It is based on mapping, section logging, nannoplankton biostratigraphy, and petrography. The results are correlated with the lithological column of the borehole MD-1/05. The evolution of the basin is connected with the development of the Pannonian Basin System, and the global 3rd order cycles, which influenced the connection with the Mediterranean Sea. Sedimentation started in the Karpatian in a fluvial to lacustrine environment and terminated at the end of the Early Badenian. During this period, three transgression–regression cycles were recorded. The first transgression occurred in the Karpatian and corresponds to the TB 2.2. cycle. The sediments reflect proximity of the hinterland. After a short break in sedimentation, the Early Badenian deposition followed. It marks the second transgression into the SGB, the first Badenian, correlated with the TB 2.3 cycle. There are signs of a transitional environment, which evolved to marine in advanced stages. At the high-stand system tract, the sea flooded the entire Slovenj Gradec Basin. Subsequent reduced quantity and diversity of the microfossils marks the onset of the second regression stage. It is followed by the third transgression, the second in the Badenian, correlated with the TB 2.4 cycle. The late Early Badenian deposition continued in the lower-energy, though occasionally still turbulent environment. Silty sediments with upward increasing content of organic matter indicate shallowing of the basin, until its final diminishing. Layers of fresh-water coal already bear witness to the existence of restricted swamps. After the Early Badenian, the area of the Slovenj Gradec Basin became dry land, exposed to erosion.
Wanda Wilczyńska-Michalik, Renata Gasek, Marek Michalik, Janusz Dańko and Tadeusz Plaskota
Ash samples from biomass combustion or co-combustion with coal were analysed. The aim of this study of ash was to determine its mineral and chemical composition, and the chemical composition of solutions obtained during one-step water extraction. Besides the chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) were applied. The mineral and chemical composition of ash samples differ strongly. The content of heavy metals in the ash is generally low, but in some samples the limits of the content of some elements determined for fertilizers or soil amendments are exceeded. The relatively poor correlation between the concentration in leachate and bulk content in ash indicates that numerous elements are present in different forms in the studied samples. The results indicate that the potential use of biomass ash, or ash from biomass-coal co-combustion, requires complex studies that explore ash and leachates.
Michael Waitzinger and Fritz Finger
Complexly zoned microcrystals of uraninite were encountered in orthogneiss from the central Tauern Window in Austria (K1 gneiss, Felbertal scheelite mine) and analysed in-situ for U, Th and Pb with state-of-the-art FE-SEM/EDX techniques. A three times finer spatial resolution was achieved using an acceleration voltage of 8 kV, compared to the classic 15–20 kV set-up of U–Th–total Pb electron microprobe dating. The lower voltage allows a spheroid of material with a diameter of only 0.3 µm to be selectively analysed. Careful tests on three uraninite reference materials show that the low-voltage method yields sufficient precision and accuracy for U–Th–total Pb uraninite dating, with errors on individual spot ages in the order of 10–30 Ma. By means of this innovative analysis technique, small-scale age zoning patterns could be resolved and dated in the uraninite microcrystals from the orthogneiss. Based on microstructures observed in backscattered electron images we interpret that an older uraninite generation in the rock, with a late Permian formation age (~260 Ma), was recycled two times through a coupled dissolution–reprecipitation process at ~210 Ma and at ~30 Ma. The younger dissolution–reprecipitation phase at ~30 Ma coincides with the Alpine regional metamorphism (lower amphibolite facies). The two older ages (~210 Ma and ~260 Ma) have been previously recognized in rocks from the Tauern Window by uraninite dating, but it is the first time here that both are recorded in the same rock and even the same uraninite grain. The present study shows that recrystallized accessory uraninite can provide a sensitive geological “hard disk” where several discrete thermal events of an area are stored. In addition, our work attests that the mineral uraninite has an unexpected geochronological robustness, even on the microcrystal scale.
Zbigniew Kordalski and Andrzej Sadurski
During the last nine years, the 133 main groundwater reservoirs in Poland (MGR) have been documented; these were published last year. Some of these are situated in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic Sea. MGR numbers 111 and 112 are in the Gdańsk area and are discussed in the present paper. The study area is situated on the border region of the moraine plateau of the Cashubian Lakeland, the western part of the Vistula River delta plain and the Bay of Gdańsk. The area of the main groundwater reservoir in no. 112 is developed in Quaternary strata and referred to as Żuławy Gdańskie; it comprises predominantly the city of Gdańsk and slightly exceeds 100 km2. There is also a Cretaceous aquifer, rich in groundwater resources, which is named MGR no. 111, beneath the Quaternary reservoir mentioned above. The area studied and modelled totalled 364 km2, on account of the hydraulic connection between these aquifers. Methods of hydrogeological research, groundwater flow simulations, resources calculation are outlined in the present paper.
Ryszard Hoc, Andrzej Sadurski and Zenon Wiśniowski
During the construction of mathematical models for mapping hydrogeological conditions it is necessary to apply simplifications, both in the geological structure and in hydrogeological parameters used. The present note discusses problems surrounding the mapping of glaciotectonic disturbances that occur in the northern part of Wolin Island (northwest Poland). For this part of the island, a direct outflow of groundwater towards the Baltic Sea basin has been determined on the basis of geophysical survey results. An important feature in the hydrogeological conditions here is the isolation of groundwater from both the Baltic Sea and Szczecin Lagoon by clay with a Cretaceous xenolith. Such a geological structure explains the presence of perched water at considerable heights in zones close to the cliffs, without any significant hydraulic connection with surrounding reservoirs. Hydrogeological conditions of Wolin Island have been modelled using the Visual MODFLOW package v.4.2. In the vertical section, these conditions can be simplified to one aquifer (Pleistocene-Holocene), in which two aquifers can be distinguished. In a large part of the island, these remain in mutual hydraulic contact: layer I – upper, with an unconfined aquifer, and layer II – lower, with a confined aquifer, locally an unconfined one. The schematisation of hydrogeological conditions adopted here has allowed to reproduce present groundwater dynamics in the study area.