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Open access

Jurgita Gailite, Agnese Mikilpa-Mikgelba, Ieva Siliņa, Ināra Kirillova, Una Lauga-Tuņina, Iveta Dzīvīte-Krišāne and Dace Gardovska

Abstract

The world has seen a rise of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children during the last 20 years. It is proposed that this increase is due to unhealthy eating habits, increasing obesity, especially among teenagers, and better diagnostics. The main risks associated with diabetes are microvascular and macrovascular complications, which can lead to early disability and premature death. The aim of our study was to identify children with type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance and investigate associated comorbidities at the time of diagnosis in the Children’s Clinical University Hospital in Latvia. A retrospective analysis was performed of all children with type 2 diabetes mellitus or glucose tolerance impairment from 2002 till 2013, who were treated in Children’s Endocrinology Centre. According to inclusion criteria, 57 patients were selected of whom 24 (42%) had type 2 diabetes mellitus and 33 (58%) had impaired glucose tolerance. Body mass index was analysed according to percentile and all patients were found to have excess weight. In children with type 2 diabetes mellitus, all patients had body mass index over the 99th percentile. Arterial hypertension was found in 66.7% and dyslipidemia in 54.2% type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. From all type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, 71% (n = 17) were girls and they had statistically significantly higher total cholesterol (p = 0.02) and low-density lipoprotein (p = 0.003) levels. Considering, that girls with type 2 diabetes mellitus have high cardiovascular risk in adulthood, it is very important not only to achieve normal glucose levels early, but also to treat comorbidities, to reduce further microvascular and macrovascular complication risk.

Open access

Ekaterina N. Baranova, Marat R. Khaliluev, Svetlana G. Spivak, Lilia R. Bogoutdinova, Valery N. Klykov, Olga G. Babak, Dmitry G. Shpakovski, Alexander V. Kilchevsky, Elena K. Shematorova and George V. Shpakovski

Abstract

Recently we have showed that the expression of the mammalian CYP11A1 cDNA in plants confers their resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. To determine the role of heterologous expression of cytochrome P450scc cDNA in resistance to ROS (radical oxygen species) dependent abiotic stresses, the structural changes of mitochondria and peroxisomes were studied under 150 mM NaCl-induced 14-day salinity treatment on juvenile tobacco plants in in vitro culture. Ultrastructural analysis of mesophyll cells of transgenic tobacco leaves constitutively expressing CYP11A1 cDNA was performed. Under NaCl stress, a change in shape from rounded to elon-gated, reduced section area, formation of branched mitochondria, as well as the emergence of triangular and rhomboid cristae, densification of a mitochondrial matrix, increase in density of contrasting membranes and their thickness were observed in non-transgenic plants. Transgenic plants without stress applied had mitochondria with rounded and elongated shape, twice as small as in non-transgenic plants, with a dense matrix and sinuous cristae. Surprisingly, the effect of NaCl led to increase in size of mitochondria by 1.5 times, decomposition of matrix and the emergence in organelles of light zones presumably containing mitochondrial DNA strands. Thus, the structural organisation of transgenic plant mitochondria under salinity treatment was comparable to that of non-transgenic plants under native conditions. It was also noted that the transgenic plant peroxisomes differed in non-transgenic tobacco both in normal condition and under the action of NaCl. The observed differences in ultrastructural organisation of mitochondria not only support our earlier notion about successful incorporation of the mature P450scc into this organelle, but for the first time demonstrate that the mammalian CYP11A1 signal peptide sequence could be efficiently used in the formation of targeted mitochondria protection of plants from salinity-induced damage.

Open access

Nataliya I. Nenko, Irina A. Ilyina, Galina K. Kiseleva and Elena K. Yablonskaya

Abstract

The cold-tolerance of ‘Kristall’ (Euro-Amur-American origin), ‘Dostoyniy’ and ‘Krasnostop AZOS’ (interspecific hybrids of Euro-American origin) grapevine varieties in the winter conditions of South Russia is characterised by the second (true dormancy) and third (induced dormancy) winter-resistance components. Here we used a complex approach to estimate plant adaptation to abiotic stress factors. We used the gravimetric method for humidity assessment and water content, spectral analysis for detection of the protein level and pigments and capillary electrophoresis to determine the level of carbohydrates, Krebs cycle organic acids, phenolcarbonic, ascorbic acids, and amino acids. The obtained results allow to suggest various mechanisms of adaptation of the studied varieties to the winter period stressors. The water content of shoots, levels of protein, amino acids, proline, sugars and the sum of phenolcarbonic acid and ascorbic acid are the most informative indicators of grape plants frost-resistance in the climate conditions of the Anapa-Taman region.

Open access

Georgijs Moisejevs, Linda Gailīte, Sergejs Isajevs, Liene Ņikitina-Zaķe, Inga Kempa, Dainius Jančiauskas, Ilze Ķikuste, Armands Sīviņš, Guntis Ancāns and Mārcis Leja

Abstract

Histamine has an important role in the process of the gastric mucosa inflammation acting via histamine receptor H2 (encoded by the gene HRH2). Single nucleotide polymorphism of the enhancer element of HRH2 gene promoter rs2067474 (1018G>A)may be associated with changes of expression of the receptor. We attempted to clarify the association of this polymorphism with gastric cancer and/or atrophic gastritis in the Latvian (Caucasian) population. The study group consisted of 121 gastric cancer patients and 650 patients with no evidence of gastric neoplasia on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Genotyping for rs2067474 was performed with the TaqMan probe-based system using a commercially available probe for RT-PCR. The frequency of the A allele in the gastric cancer group was 0.41% and in the control group — 1.54% (p = 0.231). No significant differences were found comparing genotypes between gastric cancer versus control patients (OR = 0.236, CI95% = 0.030–1.896), patients with (n = 165) versus without (n = 485) gastric metaplastic lesions (OR = 0.854, CI95% = 0.288–2.540) and patients with (n = 297) and without (n = 353) gastric atrophic lesions (OR = 1.145, CI95% = 0.451–2.906). Our findings suggest that the HRH2 -1018G>A polymorphism (rs2067474) is neither associated with gastric cancer nor the grade of atrophic gastritis in the Latvian (Caucasian) population.

Open access

Marina Tikhonova, Anne Ingver and Reine Koppel

Abstract

High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) of wheat are important factors in the determination of bread-making quality. They are responsible for elasticity and polymer formation of wheat dough. In the present study, 43 winter and 40 spring common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars originated from Estonia, Belarus, Finland, Denmark, France, Germany, the Great Britain, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, and New Zealand were characterised for Glu-A1 and Glu-D1 allelic composition using PCR method. Analyses were conducted with one DNA marker for identification of Glu-D1 allele encoding subunit Dx5, three DNA markers for Glu-A1 Ax1, Ax2* and AxNull subunits. It was determined that 32 (74.4%) winter and 35 (83.3%) spring cultivars had allele Glu-D1d, and 23 (53.5%) winter and 33 (78.6%) spring — Glu-A1a or Glu-A1b alleles, which have positive effect on dough properties. Polymorphism at Glu-A1 locus was detected in 15 cultivars, and 9 cultivars were polymorphic for locus Glu-D1. The obtained results were compared with published SDS-PAGE data. Complete or partial agreements were found for 78.1% of Glu-A1 and 70.6% of Glu-D1 alleles. Rapid and accurate identification of wheat Glu-1 alleles by molecular markers can be used for selection of wheat genotypes with good bread-making potential.

Open access

Inta Belogrudova, Dace Grauda, Lita Lapiņa, Gunta Jakobsone, Daina Roze, Reinis Ornicāns, Oksana Fokina and Isaak Rashal

Abstract

According to the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation, 75% of endangered species should be preserved in ex situ collections till 2020. The genus Liparis has a lot of recognised taxons, but only one species, Liparis loeselii (L.) Rich., grows in Europe. L. loeselii is a rare and endangered orchid species occurring in Europe. In Latvia L. loeselii is classified as the third category of endangered and protected species. To develop the best conservation strategy, the knowledge concerning the genetic differences of protected plants in a particular area is crucial. For this purpose, the genetic diversity of L. loeselii populations from different Latvian habitats was tested. The inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism method (iPBS) was used for population genetic diversity evolution. In total, 54 accessions from nine habitats were collected and analysed. L. loeselii leaves have a high content of phenols that reduce the quality of extracted DNA. It was found that the percentage of polymorph loci varied among the populations of L. loeselii growing in different habitats; some of the populations were genetically homogeneous. The genetic diversity levels of L. loeselii populations are related with the population age and the growing conditions.

Open access

Seung Hyun Hyun and Hyeonseong Jin

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine how knee compression affected kinetic variables during vertical jumps. Ten healthy males, age 20s, performed a single maximum vertical jump and a ten-consecutive vertical jump trial without knee compression (control condition) and with knee compression. The collected data of ground reaction force were used to analyse the vertical jump height (VJH), peak active force (PAF), decay rate (DR), peak passive force (PPF), loading rate (LR), and the coefficient of variation (CV). During a maximum vertical jump, knee compression increased the magnitudes of DR, PAF, and VJH by 19.8%, 3.41%, and 4.87%, respectively, compared to those under a control condition. During ten consecutive vertical jumps, PAF and VJH showed statistically significant difference according to the repetition count. Also, the mean and CV of PAF, DR, LR, and VJH over consecutive jumps were higher in magnitude under knee compression condition than under the control condition.

Open access

Maija Vikmane, Oskars Kalējs, Ginta Kamzola, Dana Upīte, Madara Ventiņa, Nikolajs Ņesterovičs and Aivars Lejnieks

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate treatment of patients with moderate and severe heart failure (HF) who were resistant to pharmacotherapy in Latvia and to assess the cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) by exploring the predisposing factors which provides CRT efficacy. We accomplished prospective analysis of left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and other parameter changes 12 and 24 months after CRT device implantation, dividing the population into two groups: responders — to whom LVEF improvement was ≥10% and non-responders where ≥ 10% LVEF improvement was not achieved. The study included 50 chronic HF patients with preserved sinus rhythm, who underwent CRT device implantation in Latvia at the Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital from June 2009 to March 2012. In the group of patients where 12 and 24 months after CRT device implantation LVEF improvement ≥10% was achieved, there were statistically significantly more patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) QRS morphology, wider QRS complex, nonischemic genesis of HF, and normal systolic blood pressure. Patients with LVEF improvement had more pronounced ventricular dyssynchrony measured by Echo before CRT device implantation and, accordingly, the CRT mode was programmed as left ventricle paced before right ventricle and close to 100% biventricular pacing was achieved and the patient was female.

Open access

Inga Pigiņka-Vjačeslavova, Edīte Birģele and Žanete Šteingolde

Abstract

Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2) is the primary agent of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS), and is associated with Porcine Circovirus Associated Disease, which causes great economic losses in pig breeding. PCV2 infection is distributed worldwide throughout the domestic pig population. There have not been any investigations on the distribution of PCV2 sero-prevalence in the population of pigs in Latvia. However PCV2 is one of main differential infections for many diseases, and therefore it is very variable in clinical presentation of PMWS and other diseases associated with PCV2. The objective of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of PCV2 in pigs of different-scale farms located in different regions of Latvia. Blood samples of 963 pigs from 58 different-scale farms were examined for the PCV2 antibody from 2006 to 2016. It can be suggested that PCV2 is widespread within the territory of Latvia. Farms with pig number of up to 10 and farms with more than 5000 animals have different levels of biosafety, housing conditions and herd management. Nevertheless, the study showed that the number of PCV2-seropositive animals is similar in all farms (from 70.0% to 79.7%).

Open access

Alise Jakovele, Vizma Nikolajeva, Jūlija Trofimova and Natalja Ivanova

Abstract

Although the information available on pathogenic Escherichia coli is in abundance, foodborne outbreaks are still a major problem. The aim of this study was to describe E. coli strains isolated from cold smoked meat products (37 samples) and sprouted grains (35 samples), to evaluate their virulence potential (vtx1, vtx2; eaeA), to determine serogroups and antibiotic resistance in Latvia. From the isolates tested 66 samples (91.7%) contained none of the virulence genes, 6 samples (8.3%) contained the eaeA gene, and two samples (2.8%) contained eaeA and vtx1 genes. Eleven samples (29.7%) isolated from meat products belonged to serogroups O103, O121, O145, O142, and O26. Six strains contained the eaeA gene, and four of them belonged to serogroup O103, one to O145, and one to O26. Two strains that additional to eaeA gene were also positive to vtx1 belonged to verotoxigenic O26. 31 samples (88.6%) isolated from sprouted grains belonged to serogroups O103 and O121; however, none of the strains contained any of the virulence genes. From strains isolated from meat products 46.0% were resistant to one to three antibiotics, but all isolates from sprouted grains were susceptible. Two strains showed multi-resistance and also contained the mcr-1 gene that encodes resistance to colistin.