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Abrasive Water Jet Cutting of Stainless-Steel Optimization by Orthogonal Array Approach

Abstract

The paper presents the use of Taguchi method to optimize the cutting of stainless steel by Abrasive Water Jet. Shown are the influence of the most important machining parameters, such a traverse speed, abrasive grains size and concentration of abrasive in the jet on the maximum depth of cut. Analysis of variance - ANOVA was used to determine the effect of machining parameters on the cutting depth. Based on the calculated signal/noise ratios for individual parameters of the cutting process, their impact on cutting depth was determined and optimal process conditions were determined in order to reach the maximum depth of cut. The empirical verification of this process was also performed by comparing the depth of cut predicted and achieved in the tests.

Open access
Application of E-Learning in Academic Education on the Direction of Safety and Hygiene of Work - Opportunities and Challenges in Opinions Conducting Classes and Students

Abstract

The study defines the concept of e-larning and presents the requirements for conducting an effective course to achieve the assumed learning outcomes. As an element of the introduction to the subject, the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning resulting from the experience over the years of organizations that used or continue to use such forms of teaching are presented. The research part presents the results of research carried out in a deliberately selected group of academic teachers and a group of students. The research results presented and discussed include such aspects as: expectations, advantages, disadvantages, fit, convergence of opinions and proposals for improvement of classes conducted in the e-learning mode in the field of Safety and Health at Work. The study is completed by conclusions and proposals of utilitarian solutions in the field of conducting academic education for selected subjects in a fixed time dimension in the form of e-learning.

Open access
A Brief Review of Robotic Machining

Abstract

The approach of this paper was to analyze the technical borders of industrial robots and to provide an overview of current technology, technical constraints and the potential types of future research suggestion concerning robotic machining. These complex automation machines used in manufacturing processes are an emerging chapter of industrial engineering that contribute to automatically performing operation in subtractive manufacturing and sheet metal forming processes. Compared with CNC machines which have shape limitations and have the restricted working area, the industrial robot is a flexible, cost-saving alternative.

Open access
Cardiac Imaging in Arrhythmias

Abstract

Cardiac arrhythmias occur frequently in valvular patients. In valvular patients the role of echocardiography is essential, due to prognostic variations. A common indication of CT coronarography is the evaluation of the coronary arteries, with the highlighting of the light coronary plaques, but also accurately measures the dimensions of the left atrium and the anatomy of the pulmonary veins. In the last years cardiac MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) has been used in the clinic and research media to establish the gold standard measurement for the volumes of heart cavities, their function and tissue structure. All these three methods are essential for the evaluation and treatment of the cardiac patient with important arrhythmia.

Open access
Customizable Patient-Specific Cutting Guide for High Tibial Osteotomy

Abstract

The paper is an interdisciplinary medical and engineering approach that aims to optimize the accuracy of the High Tibial Osteotomy surgical intervention. The axial deviations of the human inferior limb are presented in the first part of the paper. Without altering the shape of the bones, these deviations cause the wear of the knee’s articular cartilage by gonarthrosis. One of the most common and effective treatment modalities for eliminating axial deviations is High Tibial Osteotomy. Because the surgical procedure involves 3D spatial bone cutting, the accuracy of the procedure and thus the success of the operation and the recovery of the patient is dependent on the execution of these cuts. Within this paper, a specialized device is proposed that makes it possible to guide the surgical saw and to accurately perform the correction angles. In the last part of the paper, customization possibilities and fabrication of the main elements of the cutting device using Additive Manufacturing processes are presented.

Open access
Design of a Human Knee Reeducation Mechanism

Abstract

To establish an exercise in open muscular chain rehabilitation (OMC), it is necessary to choose the type of kinematic chain of the mechanical / biomechanical system that constitutes the lower limbs in interaction with the robotic device. Indeed, it’s accepted in biomechanics that a rehabilitation exercise in OMC of the lower limb is performed with a fixed hip and a free foot. Based on these findings, a kinematic structure of a new machine, named Reeduc-Knee, is proposed, and a mechanical design is carried out. The contribution of this work is not limited to the mechanical design of the Reeduc-Knee system. Indeed, to define the minimum parameterizing defining the configuration of the device relative to an absolute reference, a geometric and kinematic study is presented.

Open access
Detailed Model of a Common Rail Injector

Abstract

This work is about the validation of a Common Rail (CR) injector model. The model describes injector internal behavior in a detailed way, validation is done using dosage measurements and needle lift traces.

The model contains fluid dynamic, mechanic and electro-magnetic parts describing all important internal processes. To compare the modelling results against measurement data, three test cases were chosen on a medium duty test engine to represent a wide range of operation points. Dosage measurements were done by averaging the injected mass of 1500 injections, each measurement repeated three times. Needle displacement was measured using an injector equipped with a needle lift sensor in the same operating points. The results of the simulated injector and the measured values showed good conformity both in needle displacement and injected fuel mass, so the model can be a basis for further injector and combustion analyses.

Open access
Determination of the Number of Objects through Weight and Image Processing

Abstract

Estimating the number of identical objects is a fundamental recognition task that requires exhaustive human effort. Automating this task in a warehouse would reduce the human load significantly. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically detect the number of objects, requiring only low-tech hardware and low-processing software, in a manner that provides optimal performance for the needed tasks. This method combines the physical weight of objects and simple image processing that do not require complicated operations, such as the detection of objects and their locations or the extraction of object figures. The experimental results demonstrate the increased effectiveness of the proposed method compared to methods based on weight alone or on image processing alone.

Open access
The Effect of the Electrode Position on the Dynamic Behavior of an Electrostatically Actuated Microcantilever

Abstract

Electrostatic actuators have major role in many MEMS devices, e.g. sensors, actuators. The amount of applied voltage to an electrostatic micro-actuator has a direct impact on the amplitude of deflection throughout the cantilever. This research aims to study the effect of the electrode length and the applied voltage on the amplitude of deflection of the micro-cantilever. Also, the resonant frequency for the cantilever was computed for full length and compared with simulation results. Finite element method, ANSYS was used as a simulation tool.

Open access
An Eight-Node Hexahedral Finite Element with Rotational DOFs for Elastoplastic Applications

Abstract

In this paper, the earlier formulation of the eight-node hexahedral SFR8 element is extended in order to analyze material nonlinearities. This element stems from the so-called Space Fiber Rotation (SFR) concept which considers virtual rotations of a nodal fiber within the element that enhances the displacement vector approximation. The resulting mathematical model of the proposed SFR8 element and the classical associative plasticity model are implemented into a Fortran calculation code to account for small strain elastoplastic problems. The performance of this element is assessed by means of a set of nonlinear benchmark problems in which the development of the plastic zone has been investigated. The accuracy of the obtained results is principally evaluated with some reference solutions.

Open access