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Open access

Marton Czikkely and Csaba Fogarassy

Abstract

In our study, we focused on urban wastewater management, with special regard to the problems caused by heavy metal contaminations. Heavy metals function at low concentrations as a biogenic element, but at the same time in higher amounts (especially above the limit value) are considered as pollutants. We determined the basic wastewater treatment problem: which is the main problem of heavy metal contaminated urban wastewaters and how could eliminate heavy metals. We focused on wastewater origin heavy metal mobility in environment and effect (risk) on human health. In the following, we undertook to analyse urban wastewater in this direction.

Open access

Aurél Benárd

Abstract

Reykjavík’s largest church, Hallgrímskirkja has become a symbol and an important part of Icelandic national identity. This edifice result of conscious planning process with its location and form reinforce its national significance. Its impact derives from several elements. Buildings symbolizing the identity of communities are usually quite conservative in form. Hallgrímskirkja, however, has distinct individual features that stem from architect Guðjón Samúelsson’s aspiration to express the nation’s identity in a specific architectural form.

Open access

Christopher Fapohunda, Bolatito Akinbile and Akintoye Oyelade

Abstract

There is a growing concern that the sustainability of our built environment is being endangered, due to the uncontrolled and massive use of non-renewable natural resources in the production of structural concrete that is used for the construction of her infrastructure. Alternative material resources are being discovered through myriads of research efforts to address this concern. One of such alternative materials is the wood waste material. This paper presents a comprehensive review of properties, structural behaviour and application potentials of concrete containing wood waste, either in form of saw dust ash (SDA) as partial replacement of cement, or saw dust as partial replacement of fine aggregates, or wood aggregates as partial replacement of coarse aggregates. The results of the review showed that, (i) with appropriate mix design, wood waste, either in the form of saw dust ash, or wood aggregate, or saw dust; can be incorporated into the concrete mix to develop structural concrete that satisfies codes requirements, provided the replacement is not above 20%,.and (ii) concrete incorporating SDA has good durability properties against most of the process of deterioration encountered by concrete in service life. Thus, the use of saw dust waste in concrete will enhance sustainable structural and constructional practices.

Open access

Krisztina Fehér, Brigitta Szilágyi and Balázs Halmos

Abstract

The construction of the regular pentagon has always meant a difficult geometrical exercise for architects during the Middle Ages. As the correct drafting was forgotten after the Antiquity, several methods for its approximation had been invented in medieval times. As Golden Ratio appears between several parts of the regular pentagon, the role of the Fibonacci sequence in these approximate constructions is to be examined. The pentagonal drawing in the sketchbook of Villard de Honnecourt calls our attention to a possible way how medieval architects could have applied simple numerical ratios for getting angles they needed. The approximation of 72°, for instance, is likely to have been crucial for this pentagonal construction, as well as the approximation of Golden Ratio that could have been achieved by neighbouring pairs from Fibonacci’s sequence.

Open access

O.K. Akande, R.E. Olagunju, S.C. Aremu and E.A. Ogundepo

Abstract

In Nigerian, public building projects (PBPs) failure and abandonment constitutes one of the hindrances to the development of the nation’s economic system. Therefore, the links between PBPs management success and the built environment professionals (BEPs) is becoming an important field of attention. This study evaluates the application of project planning techniques in PBPs in Nigeria and project planning challenges related to their successful delivery. Review of relevant literature combined with experts’ input revealed twenty three factors; this form the basis for designing a questionnaire adopted to collect relevant data from BEPs. Findings identified poor strategic project planning aligned to project success, unrealistic expectation and overly bureaucratic hiccups from project initiators as the most critical factors influencing project management practices (PMP) affecting success in PBP delivery. The study suggests that unsuccessful project delivery is a reflection of inappropriately applied project planning techniques leading to serious project planning challenges.

Open access

Eric Prince Ondia, Sirimas Hengrasmee and Sant Chansomsak

Abstract

This paper aims to examine whether there is a direct relationship between spatial configuration and users’ behaviors in co-working spaces, and if so, how this environment and behavior relationship impacts their working process. The study employed ethnographic qualitative strategy as the general method of inquiry and used visual documentation, direct observations, and behavioral mapping as methods of data collection in two case studies. Analysis of the findings demonstrates that design elements such as barriers and fields are powerful tools for influencing and guiding users’ behavior within coworking spaces. The findings provide a deeper understanding of the relationship between design and behavioral patterns in co-working spaces. The research insights in this study may inform architects, policymakers and facility managers in making conscious decisions on the design of co-working spaces that are more meaningful to the users.

Open access

Navid Khaleghimoghaddam and Havva Alkan Bala

Abstract

This study examines the impact of environmental design on user experiences in the educational spaces of Tabriz Islamic Art University in Iran. In the research area, the affective assessment of four different spaces, which have been changed their function, was made. The research hypothesis is that users’ affective experience is influenced by environmental and architectural design. The method applied is the interpretation of the data obtained by the scores of the pleasure-arousal diagram of the affective and perceptional experience of 100 students in 16 educational spaces belonging to Tabriz Islamic Art University in Iran. As a result of the research, it has been verified that space design style has an active role in the affective experience of students, and there is a meaningful relationship between user’s spatial experience and the design style. In this context, it has been revealed that the spatial experiences of students in traditional spaces are positive and satisfactory in terms of interest, pleasuret and security, and that for the other three groups, many changes are required in the architectural design and spatial organization to provide positive motivation and emotional suitability.

Open access

Tamas Lukovich

Abstract

In the absence of any legal, political and institutional legitimacy, what can urban design do and how should future urban designers be educated? There appear to be as many questions in the subject as possible answers. However, in the last couple of decades a rather robust theoretical direction has been emerging, upon which a more responsive design practice and professional education can be placed. There is also an increasing international interest for urban design education.in the developed and rapidly developing world. The aims of the paper are to inform, to illuminate and to provoke, including the interrogation of our own values, practices and preferences.

Open access

Laszló Toth, Balint Horvath, Zsolt Fulop and Csaba Fogarassy

Abstract

The most notable role in the energy usage of rearing-related buildings belongs to barn climate. For animals, one of the most important climate parameter is the temperature of the barn atmosphere. This can be kept in the proper interval by either heating or cooling. Apart from the operation of technological solutions, the need for airing barns must be taken into consideration. This means there are special technical requirements for airing. Also, they can cause significant energy losses. The temperature limit of heating is mainly influenced by the technological temperature related to keeping the animal in question, its acceptable differences, the heat loss of the barn, and the airing requirement. Energy sources applicable to heating can be traditional sources (coal, oil, gas), renewable sources (solar, biomass, wind, water, or geothermal energy), or transformed energy (electricity). As these have specific operation systems, they also mean further challenges in implementing efficient energy usage. The usage of heating energy can either be optimised by the rational usage of the heating system, or machinery explicitly made for reserving energy. Sparing heating energy via recuperative heating exchange may cut costs significantly, which we also proved in this research with actual calculations. However, we have to state that the efficient usage of heat exchangers requires that the internal and external temperatures differ greatly, which has a huge impact on heat recovery performance.

Open access

Bálint Horváth and Csaba Fogarassy

Abstract

This study investigates the possibilities of various development areas (transport, energy, building) to make the cost-efficient realisation of high-profile investments, and organising and holding international sports events possible. Using a case study, the paper introduces development routes based on the evaluation of environmental and economic perspectives. The current research introduces the investment characteristics based on the development of the Hungarian building, energy and transport sectors for the 2017-2030 period. The main criterion is the integration of ‘circular economy’. For sectors which operate with high material and energy consumption, the consideration of circular economy principles may prove to be important for sustainable development. Through planning highvolume sports and worldwide events, the usual development strategy for traffic systems focuses on public transport and rentable vehicles (f. e. electric scooter, or bicycle) which can decrease CO2 emissions via modern technological solutions. Regarding the buildings, sports arenas and related facilities, besides the existing low-carbon solutions, the functions of buildings must be expanded and their usage prolonged. The management of waste left after the life cycle is expended has to be pre-planned. These are the options for making the sector’s GHG emissions decrease apart from circular tenders, which can be further combined with SMART energetic solutions.