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Financial aspects of research and development policy in the European Union

Summary

In the article the author has attempted to realise the following goals:

1) identifying and critical assessment of the share of expenditure on research and development (R&D) in the gross domestic product (GDP) borne by business entities concentrated in four sectors (enterprises, government, higher education and private non-profit institutions) and jointly in all sectors. This meter is treated as an indirect measure of the level of managerial activity in shaping the research and development policy,

2) checking the thesis that R&D expenditure are changeable and differ in the particular Member States and does not give a clear positive picture of the systematic and dynamic growth of research and development activity in these countries.

The article was developed using the following research methods: critical-cognitive analysis of the literature; statistical and comparative analysis of the “Eurostat” empirical material; the projection.

The statistical and comparative analysis of the secondary empirical material “Eurostat” illustrating the share of expenditure on research and development in the gross domestic product was used to check the thesis. The results of the analysis confirm the rightness of the research thesis.

Open access
Innovative Behavior of the Poznań Agglomeration Inhabitants in the Transport Services Market

Summary

The development of information and communication technologies, including in particular the modern development of mobile technologies, has an undeniable impact on people’s lives and, consequently, on consumers’ market behaviour. The growing popularity and capabilities of mobile devices, as well as the increasing availability of mobile Internet access, mean that in many markets companies are redefining their business models, in which the activities conducted via the Internet play an increasingly important role. This is particularly visible on the market of individual and public transport services, where thanks to mobile devices, as well as in consistency with trends in consumer market behaviours and the development of cities in accordance with the smart city concept, for several years now we can observe the emergence of innovative alternatives to traditional forms of transport. The pace of appearance of product innovations on the market depends, of course, to a large extent on the level of acceptance of innovation by consumers. The aim of the article is to determine the degree of innovativeness of the inhabitants of the Poznań agglomeration in the use of transport solutions available in Poznań. The research part presents the results of own research conducted in 2019 on a sample of 795 respondents. They showed that the inhabitants of the Poznań agglomeration are not afraid to use product innovations on the market of transport services and use them to a greater extent than in the case of the general population.

Open access
Reasons of Polish young potential employees’ interest In a university as the employer vr perceiving its employees

Summary

The article has a theoretical-empirical character. Its main goal was to identify reasons of young potential employees’ interest in working at a university. To prepare the theoretical part, the method of cognitive-critical analysis of world literature on marketing, management and HRM was applied. The results of this analysis show an existing cognitive gap and a research gap in the scope of considerations about reasons of interest of the mentioned group of employees in a university as the employer. Striving for reducing both gaps some empirical researches were conducted using the questionnaire method to gather the primary data which were analyzed statistically using the method of exploratory factor analysis, Kruskal-Wallis test, etc. The obtained results made it possible to check three research hypotheses. The possibility to perform a satisfying job was not the key reason for the respondents’ interest in working at a university. The internal structure of reasons for the respondents’ interest in a university as the employer was different for the following two groups: 1/people who think that university’s employees are perceived in Poland better than those who work in other organizations; 2/people who think that university’s employees are perceived in Poland as well as those who work in other organizations. The way of perceiving employees of an university was a feature statistically significantly differentiating the reasons of the respondents’ interest in starting work at the university only in the case of high social prestige and high wages.

Open access
Will the use of Virtual Reality Lead to a Revolution in Marketing Communication?

Summary

A contemporary consumer is a challenge for marketing specialists. The analysis of the conducted research shows that only a well-constructed marketing message, using new technologies will be a key element of effective marketing communication. There is a growing interest in the use of virtual and augmented reality on the market.

The aim of the work is to analyze the possibilities of using innovative tools, based on virtual and augmented reality in marketing communication. The source basis of the study is available literature on the subject, secondary sources, own analyzes and research and studies carried out by foreign research institutes.

The paper presents the results of authorial research carried out in 2018 using the CAPI method, as well as self-audit of marketing activities using VR and AR based on the SERVQUAL model. The results of the study indicate limited use of VR and AR. It should also be emphasized that these results are not representative, but point to a relationship that is worth exploring on a larger research group.

Open access
Associations with the University as an Employer in the Years 2016–2019 — Young Potential Employees Perspective

Summary

The article is theoretical and empirical. To prepare the theoretical part, the method of cognitive-critical analysis of world literature in the field of management, personal marketing, etc. was applied. Based on the results of this analysis, it can be concluded that there is a cognitive and research gap relating to research on universities as employers. This applies especially to associations of young potential employees with this group of employers. Therefore, the article aims to achieve the goal, which is to identify associations of young potential employees with the university as a workplace and indicate the changes taking place in them. In order to achieve this goal, three editions of empirical research were conducted, using the survey method to collect primary data. The collected data were subjected to quantitative analysis using statistical analysis methods. Its results indicate that there has been a slight improvement in terms of associations of respondents with the university as a workplace. Still, however, more than half of the respondents did not take into account taking up employment in such institutions. Therefore, it is still not an attractive employer for young Poles, which indicates the need to undertake comprehensive activities related to building a positive image as an employer.

Open access
Building a Strategy for the Development of a University using the Methodology of Strategic Sessions on the Example of the Academy of Fine Arts in Łódź

Summary

The aim of the article is to present the methodology of building an organization strategy which the author has been working on for 8 years. Although the article is based on the case study of the Academy of Fine Arts (ASP) in Łódź, in which the author conducted a series of strategic sessions, the methodology itself is universal and can be successfully applied both in enterprises, non-profit organizations and offices. The size of the organization or industry is also irrelevant. The author applied the described method in international corporations, no-profit organizations as well as kindergartens whose teams worked on the concept of development of their organizations. The article presents a full process of creating a strategy, however, due to the limit of pages imposed by the publishing house, only selected methods used during strategic sessions are described.

Open access
Evaluation of the Marketing Communication of Scientific Units in the Context of Cooperation with the Sector of small and Medium Enterprises in Lodz Region

Summary

An essential role in the constant overcoming of barriers as well as in the development of cooperation on the line “science-business” is played by proper marketing communication carried out by scientific units, being the party initiating the commercialization processes. The aim of the article is to evaluate selected aspects of marketing communication carried out by scientific units during cooperation with small and medium enterprises (SMEs) representing the smart specializations of the Lodz region. The article discusses the results of research carried out in the second and third quarter of 2018, based on the method of indirect communication with respondents, using a questionnaire among the representatives of companies belonging to the smart specializations of the Lodz region. The research results prove that scientific units do not use the available spectrum of marketing communication tools in cooperation with companies and do not use the language of market benefits in the description of knowledge being the subject of commercialization. The majority of respondents are convinced that the level of use of online communication tools by scientific units is low and medium, which automatically transfers into lowering its perception as innovative partners. On the other hand, in the opinion of the surveyed companies, the use of the possibilities created by the Internet Web 2.0 era by scientific units in marketing communication, can positively affect their image in the business environment.

Open access
How can we attract and keep young talents in the science sector? Work satisfaction and the inclination to change your workplace

Summary

Gradually dropping number of working age people, dropping rate of unemployment and continuously growing number of job vacancies, which remain open for a longer time, lead to a situation in which more and more often in the context of Poland people say the market belongs to the employee. What doesn’t alleviate the situation is the arrival of a new generation, the so-called millennials, on the market. Millennials differ from earlier generations both in terms of their characteristics and expectations with regard to their workplace.

The fact that over a half of scientists below the age of 35 employed in national scientific institutions consider changing their work, makes it necessary to focus more on employees’ needs. The goal of this article is highlighting the aspects of work which make it possible to young scientists to achieve satisfaction from professional sphere of life and thus could prevent their outflow from the sector of science.

In 2017 OPI PIB carried out a survey on a representative sample of scientific employees, which included 264 respondents born after 1981. The collected empirical materials allowed the author to analyze the expectations of young people from the sector of science with regard to their workplace. The assessments of scientists who consider changing their employer with the assessments of people who don’t have such plans have been compared.

The conducted survey leads to the conclusion that young people should above all be given the opportunity to develop and work towards achieving their own scientific aspirations. It is also necessary to guarantee the feeling of stability of employment and satisfactory remuneration. What also turns out to be significant is the organization of space, as well as providing flexible work conditions and recognition from the superiors.

Satisfying at least some of the highlighted proposals won’t be possible without introducing systemic changes. Failure to intervene in such a way will lead to a situation in which the national sector of science will in the nearest years be gradually losing valuable employees, which will be migrating to the company sector and foreign scientific institutions.

Open access
Investigating Process Maturity Modeling as an Advertising Process Improvement Paradigm

Summary

This article examined a variant of the Capability Maturity Model integrated (CMMi) through the lens of advertising process improvement. The population and sample were taken from a national array of U.S. marketing organizations. Using ANOVA, a 0.05 significance level, and a stratification of service marketing organizations versus product marketing organizations, the study showed a statistically significant difference (F(1, 304) = 4.03; p = 0.04; ω 2 = 0.00) regarding the hypothesis representing the notion that processes were potentially sporadic, chaotic, and ad hoc. This notion corresponded to the first maturity level of the examined process maturity framework. With respect to the Likert-scale data representing the first maturity level, the successive means analysis showed that both service marketing firms (M = 2.99) and product marketing firms (M = 2.74) reported neutrality regarding whether processes were deemed sporadic, chaotic, and ad hoc. Thus, the respondents perceived no evidence of the first maturity level among the queried work settings. Future studies may examine different stratifications of marketing firms (e.g., for-profit versus non-profit; domestic versus international; and so on) to better explore the proposed advertising maturity model.

Open access
Marketing for Science Based Organizations Perspectives and Questions

Summary

Marketing for research and science-based organizations is complex and not well understood; especially by the research, scientific, and technical communities. This paper presents a conceptual framework for scientists in research and science-based organizations to think about their organization’s marketing and sales functions, and related processes. NASA, one of the world’s most successful research organizations, which put two American astronauts on the moon in approximately 8 years, is briefly explored. The role of 21st Century research and science-based organizations in creating societal, organizational, and individual wealth is examined via a conceptual framework of the virtuous wealth creation process. Two forms of intrinsic organizational cultural conflict are examined; the external cultural conflicts between potential customers and the technology organization, and the internal conflict between scientists and economic managers. Strategic marketing is addressed and consists of market need, market segmentation, choosing a target market, and the organization’s position relative to the target market and competition. Tactical marketing (AKA sales) and its elements are delineated - product, price, promotion, physical distribution, and most importantly - personnel. The integration of all elements of strategic and tactical marketing into a cohesive whole is underscored. Additionally, several marketing and sales questions are posed to facilitate self-assessment by research and technology-based organizations.

Open access