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Hrvoje Jošić and Matej Metelko

Abstract

This paper presents empirical evidence on the validity of the Linder hypothesis in the case of Croatia. According to the Linder hypothesis, one of the new theories of international trade, countries with a similar level of income per capita should trade more. In order to investigate the trade pattern of Croatia's international trade, a panel regression model is formulated including 184 Croatia's import partner countries in the period from 2000 to 2016. The Linder effect was displayed and calculated using the Linder variable expressed as an absolute difference between GDP per capita of the importing and the exporting country. The cross-country panel regression model is estimated using Pooled OLS, Fixed and Random effects models. Results of the analysis have shown that the validity of the Linder hypothesis for Croatia cannot be accepted. Instead, the structure of Croatia's trade is in line with the gravity model of international trade.

Open access

Darja Boršič and Jani Bekő

Abstract

The paper assesses the existence of purchasing power parity (PPP) in ASEAN+3 economies taking into account EUR and USD as reference currencies. The research refers to the period from January 2000 to June 2017 and there are three points of view: we tested the period as a whole and then the pre-crisis period and the postcrisis period regarding the structural break due to the economic crisis. The evaluated economies include Brunei, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. A range of panel unit root tests are applied, covering the Levin, Lin and Chu test, the Breitung test, the Im, Pesaran and Shin test, the ADF-Fisher test and the PP-Fisher test. In cases where the unit root is rejected, the validity of PPP is confirmed. However, our results are ambiguous and depend on the selection of the base currency, the time period observed and on the choice of the methodology.

Open access

Željko V. Račić

Abstract

The paper presents the process of ranking and classifying countries using the I-distance method. The I-distance method is a method of classification and multidimensional ranking based on the distance values between selected indicators. The selection of indicators was carried out using the principal components analysis, whereby the statistical software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), the latest version 21th PASW Statistics, is used. The application of the I-distance determines the relative efficiency indicators. Classification and ranking are conducted based on the economic development using macroeconomic indicators for the selected European countries.

Open access

Mirella Müller, Ines Begović and Ralf Baumgärtner

Abstract

Media use in the teaching process occurs in several forms. Information and communication technologies can be used as work equipment and teaching aids, as well as tools or curriculum units, particularly in higher education. Technological changes and new information technologies, in addition to substantive knowledge of the material, require from teachers creativity, knowledge, and the skills of the didactic design of teaching using modern multimedia tools. In Croatia, there is a lack of research aimed at assessing the initial state of computer literacy within the higher education institutions. The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and digital competence of (non) teachers of higher education institutions in the Republic of Croatia, to determine the frequency of application of modern technologies in teaching, and to explain the necessity of implementation of the programme Multimedia training and e-learning at teaching faculties, which leads to the application of new educational paradigms. The study was conducted on a representative sample (N=1800) of (non) teachers of higher education institutions in the Republic of Croatia among various faculties and departments in Osijek, Split and Zagreb. The results show that (non) teachers of higher education institutions of engineering and information sciences have the best digital competences, and apply modern technology in research and scientific work significantly more than (non) teachers of social sciences and humanities.

Open access

Meri Boshkoska and Kosta Sotiroski

Abstract

Recent developments in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs) have created new opportunities for enhancing both the operations and competitiveness within the banking sector. The application of contemporary ICT-based solutions has resulted in significant changes in the traditional banking business, through the involvement of brand new approaches in the process of distribution of banking products and services to customers. As a part of the services offered by any modern bank, e-banking has become a synonym for an efficient system aimed at delivering traditional banking services through electronic communications channels, available to anybody, anywhere and anytime. The goal of the paper is to perform an empirical analysis of the current situation regarding the level of customer usage and satisfaction with e-banking services in the Republic of Macedonia. The study will enable us to determine which variables affect the level of adoption and satisfaction with е-banking services. The study is fully based on the statistical data analysis of the responses gathered from a representative sample of e-banking customers.

Open access

Adela Delalić, Maja Čurković and Josipa Antić

Abstract

The paper provides an overview of the trend in the concentration of the total assets of banks in Croatia for the period from 2007 to 2016 with the aim of analysing and presenting the changes that occurred in the system. Also, the paper shows the theoretical framework of the indicators used in the research as well as the comparison of their obtained values. The data used to calculate the total assets concentration are taken from the Croatian National Bank. The concentration indices used in the study include the entropy measure, the Theil entropy, the Gini coefficient, the Pietra index, the Atkinson index and the coefficient of variation. The results indicate a very slight decrease in concentration over the past several years, while the coefficient of variation points to the heterogeneity of the system, as well as to inequalities among the banks, which are most evident in the size of banks assets.

Open access

Zrinka Knezović, Ana Mandić, Nikica Perić, Jure Beljo and Maja Žulj Mihaljević

Abstract

In Herzegovina, different genotypes of grapevine are called the same, and the origin of these cultivars is mainly unexplored. Two groups of autochthonous cultivars are grown. The first group consists of more widespread Žilavka and Blatina, and accompanying Bena, Krkošija, Dobrogostina and Trnjak, and the second one of less common cultivars that should be preserved from extinction. Considering the small number of studies on the comparison of different methods used for analyses of similarities and relatedness of grapevine germplasm, it was interesting to assess the use of morphological characterization with molecular markers in identification of cultivars in Herzegovina. The results indicate that a similarity coefficient had a broad value range for both methods. Both methods successfully in different ways differentiated all analysed varieties, and for complete and comprehensive identification of grapevine varieties should be use.

Open access

Ivana Rašić Bakarić

Abstract

This paper investigates the link between cluster membership and performance of clustered companies. The object of the study is the Croatian Wood Cluster (CWC). The paper presents the results of a survey of 34 members of the Croatian Wood Cluster operating in wood and furniture industries. The survey was conducted in order to identify and analyse perceptions and attitudes of CWC members towards CWC objectives, activities and performance; the cooperation strength among cluster members and that with the players outside the cluster; the effects of clustering on the operational performance of the clustered SMEs; business and economic setting in Croatia, barriers for the work of the CWC and the relevancy of government policy measures. The empirical results indicate that the economic performance of the clustered companies is significantly predicted by the cooperation with public institutions, financial institutions and professional associations (such as the Agency for Investments and Competitiveness) provided by the CWC and by the access to cluster resources such as horizontal cooperation, fairs, exhibitions etc. Additionally, an access to credit, customers and competitors shows a significant positive effect on finance-based performance of the clustered companies. On the other hand, cooperation among cluster members and cooperation with scientific, high education and research institutions show no significant relationship with the company performance.

Open access

Predrag Bejaković

Abstract

The term “not directly observed” or “the underground economy” refers to those economic activities that should be included in the GDP estimation but which are not recorded in the statistics business surveys or tax and administrative data used in the calculation of the estimates of national accounts because they are not directly observable. The unofficial or informal economy contains that part of the economic activity that is difficult to measure. Thus, in addition to the complex issue of defining the underground production, there is an even more demanding task of measuring it. Hitherto in the literature, various estimation methods of unofficial economy have been proposed and their results differ significantly. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of the various methods of its measurement. The unobserved economy poses estimation problems of economic aggregates that can be differentiated as the total lack of information and the distortion of available information. There is no universal optimal approach applicable to all countries or even to the same country at different periods. In the attempt to limit the underground economy, it is much better to obviate the causes than penalise the consequences. It is necessary to simplify the procedures enabling citizens to formalize their undeclared activities, to provide a tax system that is as stable as possible and a tax and regulatory burden that is as low as possible. What is crucial is the improvement of institutions, professionalization of civil service and removal of the huge impact of politics in the societies.

Open access

Nataša Kurnoga and Ana Slišković

Abstract

Computer and mobile technology, Internet use and e-commerce have grown enormously in recent years. The main aim of this paper was to analyse the e-commerce of Croatia, the European Union (EU) countries and the post-transition EU countries. Due to technological progress, the paper among other things, analyses the trend of online purchase at the Croatian and the EU level. The analysis revealed the presence of a linear trend. Furthermore, hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analyses were used to classify the countries, first at the EU level and then at the level of the post-transition EU countries. Two variables, the Internet use expressed as a percentage of individuals with the last Internet use in the last 12 months and the Internet purchases expressed as a percentage of individuals with the last online purchase in the last 12 months were used to classify those countries. According to Ward’s method with squared Euclidean distances and dendrogram, the countries were classified into three clusters, which were then used as the basis for the k-means method. Finally, the cluster analysis resulted in the following three clusters: most developed, developed and less developed. Croatia was classified in the less developed cluster at the level of the EU countries, while at the level of the post-transition EU countries it was classified in the developed cluster.