Abdullah Saeed S Alqahtani, Hongbing Ouyang and Adam Ali
This study investigates if the changes in economic policy uncertainty in the U.S. can explain the returns on stock markets of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. The study also examines how the stock market returns of the six GCC countries respond to the changes in economic policy uncertainty in the U.S. The results demonstrate that changes in economic policy uncertainty in the U.S. are not significantly linked with the returns on all the stock markets except Oman stock market, which shows a statistical significant negative relationship with the changes in economic policy uncertainty in the U.S. Controlling for the effects of the U.S. stock market and oil price, returns on all the six GCC markets including Oman show insignificant coefficients. The returns on all the stock markets do not respond to the changes in economic policy uncertainty. The results of Granger causality tests show that the changes in economic policy uncertainty in the U.S. do not cause the returns of all the six GCC stock markets.
Ashir In Tishar and Syed Hasanuzzaman
Income tax non-compliance is worldwide delinquent and with the small volume of income tax collection Bangladesh has been facing its demerits for a long time. There is still a gap to measure income tax non-compliance behaviour in a micro direct approach. This study uses EVSCALE instrument to calculate the individual income tax non-compliance as a latent variable. The instrument consists of 15 items in Likert scale to measure the non-compliance behaviour of a person. The objective of this study is to identify the determinants of income tax non-compliance and key factors of EVSCALE in Bangladesh. The study collected opinions of taxpayers by primary data collection following a convenient sampling method. Logit regression analysis finds out that log monthly income, tax morale, tax education and occupation significantly influence income tax non-compliance. Exploratory factor analysis identifies six key factors that have consistency and shared variance. However, Cronbach’s alpha shows that five key factors have high reliability among six factors. According to rules of thumb, this study suggests that EVSCALE instrument needs modification by adding more items. This study argues that increasing participation in taxation system is a feasible policy for government instead of increasing tax rate.
Jaana Sepp, Marina Järvis and Karin Reinhold
The humankind is ageing rapidly, and as a result, there is an increasing need for old people’s homes. The nursing homes face different problems in financing and recruiting the labour force and management. Lack of resources causes the situation, when managers have to find possibilities to accomplish services and to provide quality care with the limited funds. This situation has an additional impact on the nursing professionals, who have to deal with many psychosocial risk factors in their work. The aim of the paper is to explore the work-related psychosocial risk factors and their relationships with mental health problems (MHPs) amongst care workers. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken amongst the care workers in nine Estonian nursing homes. Psychosocial work factors and MHPs (stress, somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, burnout, cognitive symptoms, and sleep disorders) were analysed using the second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II). Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s r correlation were used to analyse the data. The analysis was based on 340 care worker surveys. The highest mean scores for the studied work-related psychosocial factors were recorded for the quantitative demands, influence, rewards, role conflicts, trust, insecurity and work-family balance. Low mean scores were recorded for the meaning of work, role clarity, social relationships at work. The lowest score was followed by burnout and the highest - by cognitive symptoms.
Zuzana Brinčíková, Marek Kálovec, Colin W. Lawson and Eva Muchová
Fourteen Slovak state-owned enterprises were studied, using published data and structured interviews with management. A novel methodology is used to assess SOE autonomy, effectiveness, accountability and governance. Variations in operating conditions reflect different government objectives and different ownership models. Mixed state-private firms performed more like competitive firms than did wholly state-owned SOEs. This information was fed into an assessment of Slovak SOEs’ compliance with the 2015 OECD Guidelines on SOE Corporate Governance. There are many differences between Slovak practice and the Guidelines. This may reflect a choice to favour government interests, rather than the OECD’s inclusion of a wider group of stakeholders. One cost is foregone efficiency gains. Another is the perception that the present highly opaque governance system hides corruption.
Francisco Flores Muñoz, Diego Valentinetti, María Mora Rodríguez and Ángel Mena Nieto
This paper proposes a measurement method for assessing the extent to which the XBRL digital standard eXtensible Business Reporting Language can assist firms in implementing their reporting when applying EMAS The EU Eco-Management and Audit Scheme. A specific survey based on the work of (Bunker et al., 2007), which uses Value Compatibility, was carried out at the most important firms in Southern Spain. Different sectors were involved in the study: public hospital, copper manufacturing facilities, petrochemical plant and pulp and renewable energy production. The results reveal some concordances between EMAS using XBRL as a reporting technology, and the cultural, organisational and technical working environment of the analysed firms, specifically those related to the Structural Dimension. By contrast, some discordance is highlighted related to the Practical Dimension. The paper proposes for the first time the application of the global financial standard XBRL for a non financial purpose like the widely accepted EMAS, to actual potential uses in real scenarios. The empirical research combined heavy industry with services, privately owned firms with public entities, private and public sector, in the analysis of this technology. The paper represents a necessary landmark for a subsequent longitudinal study.
Marco Ginanneschi and Pietro Piu
This research aims to answer the question if e-commerce favoured in a special way the growth of low-cost carriers within the civil aviation market. After defining low-cost and traditional carriers’ business models, data on transported passengers were collected for three countries (Italy, Germany and Spain) and confronted with the number of e-consumers. Despite a significant correlation in all the three markets, only in Italy our hypothesis has been supported by Granger causality, and the regression analysis allows to forecast a future characterized by a growing dominance of LCCs. Although the definition of an econometric model will require further studies, the distinctive features of the Italian market might represent a starting point for future research on the complex relationship between e-commerce and air transport.
Contemporary third-party logistics (3PL) companies tend to broaden their competences in different fields and apart from traditional logistics services provide various value-added services to their customers. A systematic approach of 3PL resource management, as well as performance and quality indicator measurement are needed to forecast development of key performance indicators of a company. The purpose of this study is to discover contemporary tendencies of 3PL with regard to resources, performance and quality related issues, to determine resources, processes and quality indicators of 3PL, and to develop a system dynamics model for optimization of internal resources and processes of a company. The paper provides a systematic review of literature related to management of 3PL resources, quality and performance measurement. A model of management and optimization of 3PL resources and internal processes is developed by applying System Dynamics. The developed model consists of six blocks, namely, commercial activities, operations, procurement, administration, personnel management and quality management, representing different areas of internal activities of 3PL.