The aim of the article is to present the significance of neighbouring countries in the structure of inbound tourism for the member countries of the European Union. In order to achieve this aim, some secondary materials presenting the volume and the structure of tourist traffic in the analysed countries have been referred to. The structure of the article allows the Author to provide a detailed analysis of the particular problems in the discussed field. Firstly, a review of scientific literature on tourist traffic and the significance of neighbouring countries for inbound tourism is provided. The next part of the text presents the countries adjacent to the European Union member states. Subsequently, the significance of these destinations is indicated, due to the data that present the structure of inbound tourism. It transpires that in most analysed countries, their neighbouring states come as a significant - and often even the most important - segment in inbound tourism. Furthermore, neighbouring countries often take the top positions on the list of the countries the citizens of which visit particular destinations most frequently. The analysis of the structure of inbound tourism in Poland in the years 2012-2016 also indicates that the neighbouring markets form the most important segment, regardless of some changes that took place during the analysed time period. Due to the review of some relevant documents, it is indicated (on the example of Poland) that neighbouring countries are often of priority significance in the assumptions and development plans for tourism, although the ranks of the particular countries can be different. On one hand, the considerations presented in the article allow the Author to evaluate the significance of neighbouring countries for inbound tourism in the particular countries; on the other hand, they indicate the necessity of including these countries into the tourism policy, along with promotion activities undertaken in the foreign markets.
Gabriela Misiura and Małgorzata Rozkwitalska
The aim of this study was to show the relationship between the level of the confidence indicator and the innovation of the economies of individual Scandinavian countries in the context of the new institutional economy (NEI). Literature studies and analysis of available results of social research indicate the importance of formal and informal institutions in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland in making these countries world leaders in innovation.
Stefan Tokarski and Karolina Oleksa-Marewska
As a result of socio-economic transformations and development of the Information Era, the competitive advantage of enterprises is based on intellectual capital. Competent employees as owners of knowledge, skills and creativity, essentially contribute to the strengthening of the position taken by their organisation on the market. In order to allow employees to use their capabilities in an effective way, it is crucial to provide them with favourable organisational conditions, which constitute organisational climate. The concept of organisational climate refers to employees’ perception of organisational conditions, which can be combined with the first level of economic analysis in the approach presented by New Institutional Economics, according to the model presented by O. Williamson (2000, p. 597). It is assumed that the employees’ positive assessment of the organisational climate is correlated with a higher level of the employees’ commitment, which leads to an increase in the competitive advantage of an organisation. In order to verify the hypothesis, some quantitative surveys have been carried out among knowledge workers (N = 639). In the research, two questionnaires have been used: the Organisational Climate Questionnaire (authors: L. Rosenstiel and R. Bögel) and the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI developed by E. Demerouti), which examine the level of burnout and commitment to work. The results of the statistical analysis have shown a significant, strong relationship between the assessment of organisational climate dimensions and the level of employees’ commitment to work, which contributes to an increase in the competitive advantage of an enterprise.
The aim of the article is to present budget deficit and government debt in the European Union member states, with particular consideration of the countries that belong to the PIIGS group. This paper has focused on the scale of these phenomena, on their reasons and on some attempts made to improve the unfavourable situation. In the main thesis presented in the article, it is stated that budget deficit and general government debt come as significant threats to economic security of the European Union (EU) countries. The research methods that have been applied in the study involve descriptive analysis and statistical data analysis.
Jacek Jaworski and Katarzyna Sokołowska
The aim of the article is to identify the main determinants of categories ascribed to scientific research units in the field of Economic Sciences in 2017. In the first part of the article, the legal and substantive basis for the evaluation of such institutions is presented. The second part of the text provides a verification of the evaluation assumptions included in the legal regulations (their advisability and significance). The verification is based on the statistical analysis of the obtained results. There are only two criteria out of four that determine the ascribed scientific categories: the first criterion refers to scientific achievements (publications) and the second one refers to scientific potential (scientific promotion and academic staff mobility). The other criteria - the third one (commercialisation of the research) and the fourth one (impact of the research exerted on economy and its internationalisation) did not affect the comprehensive evaluation in any significant way. The number of registered academic employees was not of any significance either.
At present, under the conditions of some turbulent changes observed in our environment, micro-enterprises seek for opportunities to win their competitive positions in the market and in the sectors in which they operate The aim of the article is to present marketing and logistics management as one of the methods applied to achieve the market objectives of micro-enterprises. As an integrated method, marketing and logistics management may contribute to the improvement in competitiveness; hence, the recognition of conditions required for the application of this method may also contribute to the improvement in competitiveness. In the article, a review of literature related to the discussed problems is presented. The expert literature on the analysed subject does not provide any publications on micro-enterprise management, and scientific research in that sector is very scarce and provides only some general data. Therefore, it is necessary to analyse the processes taking place in the micro-enterprise sector in more detail, especially in the field of modern methods of management. In the article, some considerations on the specificity of integrated logistics and marketing processes are presented. Research methods: a review of expert literature and the Author’s own case-study research. The research was carried out in the years 2015-2018 among a group of micro-enterprises in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Province, Łódzkie Province, Mazowieckie Province and Wielkopolskie Province. The aim of the research was to identify conditions required for marketing and logistics management in micro-enterprises and to define the impact exerted by the factors that determine the implementation of that process. Recognising knowledge as a fundamental determinant of the implementation of modern management methods in the aspect of micro-enterprise operation requires some in-depth analysis. The article presents the results of the research based on the case-study of integrated marketing and logistics management, on the example of a virtual micro-enterprise. The main conclusions: In a virtual micro-enterprise, it is possible to indicate the field of integration of marketing and logistics processes and to define their courses and conditions. Knowledge of logistics and marketing allows us to extend the field referring to the environment of the analysed company in virtual space.
The aim of the paper was to assess differentiation of the occurrence of households’ income affluence in Poland between subregions. An analysis was conducted using two-level logit models without explanatory variables (null model) and with explanatory variables at household level (random intercept model and random slope model). The variables were related to the characteristics of the household and its head. The conducted analysis allowed to state that the occurrence of affluence is differentiated between subregions in the null model as well as in the model with explanatory variables.
Elżbieta Roszko-Wójtowicz and Jacek Białek
The consumer price index (CPI) is acommon measure of inflation. Similarly to the harmonised index of consumer prices (HICP), it is determined using the Laspeyres index, thus data on the consumption of the basket of goods do not have to be current. The Laspeyres index, using weights only from the base period, may not reflect changes in consumer preferences that occurred in the studied year. This is the reason for the formation of the so-called substitution bias in the measurement of inflation. The aim of the article is to assess the impact of the level of innovativeness of a given country’s economy on the occurrence of the substitution effect. The empirical part of the article is based on basic innovation indices, i.e. the SII, IOI, and GII. The assessment of the relationship between the level of innovativeness and the scale of the substitution effect was carried out based on the methods of multidimensional statistical analysis (including cluster analysis, the PROFIT method).
Joanna Muszyńska and Ewa Wędrowska
A formula of measures applied to assess the level of income inequality results from the intellectual basis on which this approach is founded. Our paper focuses on Generalized Entropy measures. The aim of our paper is two-fold. Firstly, it aims at presenting GE measures and discussing their properties, especially the property of additive decomposition. Secondly, the empirical aim is to assess the level of income inequality in Poland and to indicate its main determinants. In the study we use microdata obtained from EU-SILC that cover information about incomes received by individual household members in 2016. Five factors are chosen as the possible drivers of income inequality. The study proves the characteristics related to human capital are the most influential factors of income variability between households. The characteristics describing the composition of the household contribute to the overall level of inequality to asmaller extent.