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Anna Sączewska-Piotrowska

Abstract

The aim of the paper was to assess differentiation of the occurrence of households’ income affluence in Poland between subregions. An analysis was conducted using two-level logit models without explanatory variables (null model) and with explanatory variables at household level (random intercept model and random slope model). The variables were related to the characteristics of the household and its head. The conducted analysis allowed to state that the occurrence of affluence is differentiated between subregions in the null model as well as in the model with explanatory variables.

Open access

Elżbieta Roszko-Wójtowicz and Jacek Białek

Abstract

The consumer price index (CPI) is acommon measure of inflation. Similarly to the harmonised index of consumer prices (HICP), it is determined using the Laspeyres index, thus data on the consumption of the basket of goods do not have to be current. The Laspeyres index, using weights only from the base period, may not reflect changes in consumer preferences that occurred in the studied year. This is the reason for the formation of the so-called substitution bias in the measurement of inflation. The aim of the article is to assess the impact of the level of innovativeness of a given country’s economy on the occurrence of the substitution effect. The empirical part of the article is based on basic innovation indices, i.e. the SII, IOI, and GII. The assessment of the relationship between the level of innovativeness and the scale of the substitution effect was carried out based on the methods of multidimensional statistical analysis (including cluster analysis, the PROFIT method).

Open access

Joanna Muszyńska and Ewa Wędrowska

Abstract

A formula of measures applied to assess the level of income inequality results from the intellectual basis on which this approach is founded. Our paper focuses on Generalized Entropy measures. The aim of our paper is two-fold. Firstly, it aims at presenting GE measures and discussing their properties, especially the property of additive decomposition. Secondly, the empirical aim is to assess the level of income inequality in Poland and to indicate its main determinants. In the study we use microdata obtained from EU-SILC that cover information about incomes received by individual household members in 2016. Five factors are chosen as the possible drivers of income inequality. The study proves the characteristics related to human capital are the most influential factors of income variability between households. The characteristics describing the composition of the household contribute to the overall level of inequality to asmaller extent.

Open access

Dorota Witkowska

Abstract

The main income determinants are: general economic situation, individual attributes of employees and characteristics of the workplace. However, there are also family duties which affect economic activity and wages, mostly in case of women who are the main care providers to children, the elderly, handicapped or sick. The aim of our research is to find out if the structure of the households influences the monthly remuneration of employees in Poland. The investigation consists in estimation econometric models which describe monthly remuneration on the basis of the microdata. Research is provided for the sample of employees regardless of gender, separately for male and female employees, and for women in three age classes. The analysis based on econometric models enables to find out that on average: (1) male employees earn significantly more than females, (2) married women earn less than unmarried ones while in case of men the situation is the opposite, (3) the motherhood penalty exists in Poland and (4) care providers for the elderly are mostly women, and care duties influence mostly remuneration received by women aged 25-54.

Open access

Kateryna Berezka and Olha Kovalchuk

Abstract

Many of the problems that the world faces today appeared as the result of unstable development. Global climate change, resource depletion, space debris, poverty, inequality, and threats to global security are the main but not the only challenges for modern humanity. The important issue in studying the problems of sustainable development of the countries in the world is the development of strategies that would give an opportunity to avoid environmental and social catastrophes. The correspondence analysis is used to identify the relationship between the Happy Planet Index (which is an aggregate indicator of achievements in the key aspects of human development, such as life duration and quality, distribution uniformity, access to knowledge, and preservation of environment) and Gross National Income (one of the basic metrics of the population welfare level). The analysis led to the conclusion that the income level of the population is not the main factor in assessing the level of sustainable development of acountry. The obtained results can give important and useful information for social institutions and politicians.

Open access

Fahir Kanlić and Ademir Abdić

Abstract

National Statistical Institutes (NSIs) strive to produce short-term business statistics (STS) indicators with the high quality estimates in a timely manner. NSIs are usually faced with the challenges, such as differences in definitions, incompleteness of administrative data, periodicity and timeliness, coverage issues, etc. Administrative Value Added Tax (VAT) turnover data can be used to partially or completely replace survey data for the estimation of short-term business turnover indicators. In this paper, main characteristics of administrative VAT turnover data in Bosnia and Herzegovina will be examined through cleaning of VAT turnover data and matching them with survey data. Hence, the main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between VAT turnover data and survey data in in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Monthly Retail Trade Turnover Indices (RTI) for in Bosnia and Herzegovina will be estimated by using administrative VAT turnover data. Spearman’s correlation coefficients are used to examine the presence of a linear relationship between VAT turnover data and survey data. Results gained by using survey and administrative VAT turnover data will be compared. Based on the results of the analysis, future challenges and perspectives for expansion of using administrative VAT turnover data will be identified.

Open access

Agnieszka Lipieta

Abstract

In the light of Schumpeter’s pioneering vision of economic evolution the innovations and innovative entrepreneurs play a fundamental role in the economic development. However, imitations and producers-imitators are essential in diffusing and adapting innovations into the economic exchange processes. In this context the aim of the paper is to model and analyse some properties of imitative mechanisms appearing within the economic evolution. Innovative and imitative mechanisms defined in Hurwicz’s conceptual apparatus are analysed in the economy determined by the use of topological tools usually applied in the general equilibrium theory. As a result it is shown that, in the economy under study, imitative mechanisms are the reasons for and the consequences of innovative mechanisms as well as that the innovative and imitative processes can coexist in the framework of the same innovative mechanism. Moreover it is proven that under some assumptions equilibrium in the economic system analysed can be obtained as a consequence of either of an innovative or an imitative mechanism.

Open access

Rudi Seljak, Lea Bregar, Sanda Colić and Maja Dozet

Abstract

In spite of theoretical inferiority, a large majority of statistical institutes use non-probabilistic sampling techniques in price surveys. The main disadvantage of non-probabilistic sample design is that the risk of biased results is increased. Attempting to handle this risk in the domain of service producer price indices (SPPI) of professional services, the Croatian Bureau of Statistics (CBS) developed an innovative methodology and implemented it relying on the probability proportional to size (PPS) sample design. The purpose of the paper is to evaluate the impact of the probabilistic sampling strategy on the quality of price indices as shown in the case of SPPI for professional services at the CBS. The paper outlines respective methodological upgrading of SPPI compilation at the CBS, including also the method for variance estimation. The effect of the probabilistic sampling on SPPI is analysed by comparison with traditional purposive sampling surveys. The quality of SPPI based on the probabilistic sample approach is examined by coefficients of variation and confidence intervals.

Open access

Berislav Žmuk and Iris Mihajlović

Abstract

The expansion of the Internet has radically changed the way in which citizens travel, book and organise travel arrangements. Since innovation and new information technologies have become crucial determinants to encourage competitiveness in the tourism sector in Europe, this article investigates how selected development indicators influence the Percentage of individuals that use Internet for travel and accommodation services. Eurostat data for 34 European, European Union (EU-28) and selected EU candidates, countries for 2017 were analysed. It has been presented that (1) Gross Domestic Product per capita in Purchasing Power Standards; (2) Percentage of population aged 15 to 64, by tertiary education; as well as (3) Percentage of individuals aged 16 to 74, who have basic or above basic overall digital skills, all correlate positively and strongly with the main variable under study. The conducted regression analysis has shown that variable digital skills has the greatest impact on the main variable under the study. The K-mean clustering of countries resulted with four clusters. The Western Balkan countries can be found in a cluster which has in average the lowest values of all four variables in compare to the averages of other three clusters.

Open access

Anna Matysek-Jędrych

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to identify and assess, on a comparative, intra-country basis, the existing practices and developments in central bank accountability for financial stability, from a new-macroprudential policy-perspective. The paper aims to contribute to the ongoing debate on institutional arrangements for macroprudential policy. The debate as to whether the combination of monetary policy and financial supervision within one institution is not new. Nevertheless it is far from being resolved. The paper points to the need to establish clear, formal and robust mechanisms of central bank involvement in the process of executing macroprudential policy, at least as a data collection and analyzing institution.